Superoxide dismutases and superoxide reductases.
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.
V), FeSOD (∼0.1 V), MnSOD (∼0.3 V), and CuZnSOD (0.32 and 0.36 V for human and bovine, respectively) do indeed achieve appropriate intermediate reduction an FeSOD or a MnSOD produce the Mn version when exposed to O2 or when deficient in Fe, but the Fe version otherwise... This indicates that the forward reaction (Scheme 3, step 2) involves uptake of a proton by the OH ligand in conjunction with reduction of FeSOD by O2, consistent If a SOD is inactivated by H2O2, it is often claimed that the SOD must be an FeSOD or a CuZnSOD energies associated with proton uptake that is coupled to metal ion reduction... activity because the amount of Cu in the native copper site has been reduced... the Fe enzyme is first reduced to the Fe state using either a cobalt-60 source or sodium ascorbate... The reduced that rubredoxins would be the ultimate electron donors to the superoxide reductases... Fe/MnSODs, CuZnSOD, and SORs, provides excellent examples both of The rise of O2 on Earth is one of the better-understood
- Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry/metabolism*
- Catalytic Domain
- Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
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fig18: Unrooted dendogram of 53 members of theFeSOD and MnSOD familywherein branches are colored as follows (clockwise from top left):blue for mitochondrial MnSODs, magenta for archaeal SODs, teal foractinobacterial SODs, pink for bacterial MnSODs, light green for cyanobacterialFeSODs, dark green for FeSODs of plants and green algae, red for FeSODsof protists, and orange for FeSODs of bacteria. Sequences were chosento represent diverse groups of organisms and different metal specificities.188c BLAST searches of the nonredundant databaseof the National Center for Biotechnology and Information (NCBI) wereused to identify additional SOD sequences from weakly representedgroups, and, in those cases in which sequences were very similar,only one exemplar was retained, the one for which the best informationon metal ion use was available. Where possible, for bacterial andarchaeal SODs especially, the identity of an SOD as Fe-dependent versusMn-dependent was sought in primary literature, and the means by whichits metal ion identity was determined is listed as “Anal”for direct analysis via atomic absorption or another spectroscopicmethod, or “H2O2” when it wasinferred on the basis of the SOD’s sensitivity or resistanceto inactivation by H2O2 and a reference is provided.Some Fe/MnSODs are included, but given that the motivation of thisexercise was to identify residues that correlate differentially withFe or Mn use, others are described via Table 4 instead. The tree was displayed and colored using the interactivetree of life server hosted by the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.400 The multiple sequence alignment upon whichit is based was generated using MUSCLE401 (in the “full” most stringent mode) for up to 16 interactions,as accessed via Phylogeny.fr hosted by the Centre National de la RechercheScientifique.402 The alignment was curatedusing Gblocks403 at the most stringentsetting (not allowing many contiguous nonconserved positions), andthe results were inspected visually via the Phylogeny.fr interface.The phylogenetic tree was constructed by PhyML using the approximatelikelihood-ratio test404 and using thesubstitution model of Jones, Taylor, and Thornton with default parameters,and gaps were removed from the alignment. The tree topology was confirmedwith COBALT via the National Center for Biotechnology Informationserver.405 The sequences are identifiedin the figure using the following abbreviations corresponding to thefollowing accession numbers: Afumig-Mn, Aspergillusfumigatus MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:18158811; Ahydro-Fe, Aeromonas hydrophila FeSOD(Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:75530508; Anabae-Mn, Anabaena MnSOD (Cyanobacteria) GI:23200075 H2O2;406 Apernix-Mn/Fe, Aeropyrum pernix Mn/FeSOD (Crenarchaeota) GI:321159640;119 Athali-Fe, Arabidopsisthaliana FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:332659609; Athal-Mn, Arabidopsis thaliana MnSOD(Viridiplantae-mito) GI:15228407; Avine-Fe, Azotobacter vinelandii FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:226720755 Anal.;407 Bthuri-Mn, Bacillusthuringiensis MnSOD (Firmicutes) GI:228830333; Cauran-Mn, Chloroflexus aurantiacus MnSOD (Chloroflexii) GI:31074373 Anal.;408 Cburne-Fe, Coxiella burnetii FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:145002 H2O2;409 Cgluta-Mn, Corynebacteriumglutamicum MnSOD (Actinobacteria) GI:81783000; Cjejun-Fe, Campylobacter jejuni FeSOD(Epsilonproteobacteria) GI:218561849 H2O2;410 Creinh-Fe, Chlamydomonasreinhard FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:158280091; Dmelan-Mn, Drosophila melanogaster MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:7302882; Dradio-Mn, Deinococcus radiodurans MnSOD (Bacteria-Deinococ) GI:32363428; Ecoli-Fe, E. coli FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:84028734 Anal;75a Ecoli-Mn, E.coli MnSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Mn) GI:134659 Anal;74a,114c Ehist-Fe, Entamoeba histolytica FeSOD(protozoan-Eukaryota) GI:464774 H2O2;411 Ggallu-Mn, Gallusgallus MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:15419940; Hpylor-Fe, Helicobacter pylori FeSOD(Epsilonproteobacteria) GI:190016324;412 Hsap-Mn, Homo sapiens MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:24987871; Livano-Mn, Listeria ivanovii MnSOD(Firmicutes) GI:134666; Mbark-Fe, Methanosarcina barkeri FeSOD (Euryarchaeota) GI:499627762 Anal.;196d Methylo-Mn, Methylomonas MnSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Mn) GI:95281 Anal;121 Mpalea-Fe, Marchantia paleacea FeSOD(Viridiplantae) GI:75243372; Msativ-Fe, Medicago sativa FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:75248782; Msmeg-Mn, Mycobacterium smegmatis MnSOD (Actinobacteria) GI:21264517 Anal;120 Mthermo-Fe, Methanobacteriumthermoauto FeSOD (Euryarchaeota) GI:23200500; Mtuber-Fe, Mycobacterium tuberculosis FeSOD (Actinobacteria) GI:809164 H2O2;413 Nmenin-Fe, Neisseriameningitidis FeSOD (Betaproteobacteria) GI:7226122; Naster-Mn, Nocardia asteroides MnSOD(Actinobacteria) GI:1711453; Nostoc-Fe, Nostoc PCC7120 FeSOD (Cyanobacteria) GI:17132032; Paeroph-Mn/Fe, Pyrobaculum aerophilum Mn/FeSOD (Crenarchaeota) GI:14917043;118 Pborya-Fe,: Plectonemaboryanum FeSOD (Cyanobacteria) GI:1711435 Anal;156b Pfalc-Fe, Plasmodiumfalciparum FeSOD (protozoan-Eukaryota) GI:74946757;414 Pfreud-FeMn, Propionibacteriumfreudenreichii (shermanii) Fe/MnSOD(Actinobacteria) GI:5542134 Anal.;113b Phalo-Fe, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:306440524; Pleiog-Fe, Photobacterium leiognathi FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:134643 Anal;139 Poliv-Mn, Paralichthys olivaceus MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:134676; Poval-Fe, Pseudomonas ovalis FeSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Fe) GI:12084342 Anal;114d Ppinas-Fe, Pinuspinaster FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:75223482; Scere-Mn, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MnSOD (Eukaryota-mito) GI:217035334; Ssolfa-Fe, Sulfolobus solfataricus FeSOD (Crenarchaeota) GI:14286093 Anal.;115,208 Synech-Fe, Synechocystis 6803 FeSOD (Cyanobacteria) GI:1653111; Taest-Mn, Triticum aestivum MnSOD (Viridiplantae-mito) GI:62131095; Taq-Mn, Thermus aquaticus MnSOD(Bacteria-Deinococ) GI:1711455; Tbruce-Fe, Trypanosoma brucei B2 FeSOD (protozoan-Eukaryota) GI:70834946 H2O2;415 Telong-Fe, Thermosynechococcus elongatus FeSOD (Cyanobacteria) GI:34810955; Tgondi-Fe, Toxoplasma gondii FeSOD(protozoan-Eukaryota) GI:122066229; Vcart-Fe, Volvox carteri FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:121077704; Vchol-Mn, Vibrio cholerae MnSOD(Gammaproteobacteria-Mn) GI:14039308 upregulation in absenceof Fe;416 Vungui-Fe, Vignaunguiculata FeSOD (Viridiplantae) GI:56554197 H2O2;417 Xcamp-Mn, Xanthomonas campestris MnSOD (Gammaproteobacteria-Mn) GI:76364224.
The sections that followdescribe how amino acid sequence similarities among Fe- and/or MnSODsare remarkably consistent with what is known about the evolution ofeukaryotic cells as well as the major branches of the tree of life.Mitochondrial MnSOD can be traced back to the archaeal origin of eukaryoticcells, chloroplast FeSOD to cyanobacterial origin and protist FeSODto bacterial origin (of possibly more than one type, and possiblyvia lateral gene transfer). The conservation of SODs across the domainsof life indicates that FeSODs and MnSODs existed as distinct typesevolving independently before the emergence of eukaryotes, becausethese two clusters separately (Figure 18).Distinct FeSODs and MnSODs appear to have arisen even before divergenceof major branches of bacteria, or moved among branches by lateralgene transfer.188a,194 However, FeSODs remain the mostwidely dispersed, consistent with a very early origin.195