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Long-term adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and chronic inflammation in the prospective Whitehall II study.

Akbaraly TN, Shipley MJ, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M, Lowe G, Hamer M, Kivimaki M - Am. J. Med. (2014)

Bottom Line: However, to date the long-term associations between diet and inflammation have been poorly described.After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and health status, participants who maintained a high AHEI score (ie, a healthy diet, n = 1736, 37.7%) and those who improved this score over time (n = 681, 14.8%) showed significantly lower mean levels of interleukin-6 (1.84 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-1.98 and 1.84 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.70-1.99, respectively) than those who had a low AHEI score (n = 1594, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period (2.01 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.87-2.17).These data suggest that maintaining and improving adherence to healthy dietary recommendations may reduce the risk of long-term inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inserm U710, Montpellier, F-34000, France; University Montpellier II, Montpellier, France; EPHE, Paris, France; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: tasnime.akbaraly@inserm.fr.

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Average levels of IL-6 over 2 measures 5 years apart according to 6-year changes in the AHEI score among 4600 participants from the Whitehall II cohort. Adjusted geometric mean levels of IL-6 were estimated from linear regression models for 4 categories: participants who maintained a low AHEI score over the exposure period, participants who maintained high AHEI score, participants who increased their score, and participants who decreased their score. Models were fully adjusted for sex, age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, living alone, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. % difference (exp[regression coefficient] – 1)*100; a negative percentage difference expressed the percentage reduction in IL-6 levels in the relevant exposure group compared with the reference group.
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fig2: Average levels of IL-6 over 2 measures 5 years apart according to 6-year changes in the AHEI score among 4600 participants from the Whitehall II cohort. Adjusted geometric mean levels of IL-6 were estimated from linear regression models for 4 categories: participants who maintained a low AHEI score over the exposure period, participants who maintained high AHEI score, participants who increased their score, and participants who decreased their score. Models were fully adjusted for sex, age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, living alone, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. % difference (exp[regression coefficient] – 1)*100; a negative percentage difference expressed the percentage reduction in IL-6 levels in the relevant exposure group compared with the reference group.

Mentions: The percentage difference in the average of 2 measures of IL-6 according to the AHEI change categories are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Compared with participants who maintained a lower AHEI score (n = 1591, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period, those who improved their adherence to AHEI guidelines (n = 681, 14.8%) and those who maintained high AHEI scores (n = 1736, 37.7%) over this period had lower average IL-6 values after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Further adjustment slightly attenuated but did not remove these associations (Table 2). Among the 2275 participants who had a lower AHEI score in 1991/1993, each 10-point increase in AHEI score over the 6-year exposure period was associated with a reduction of 4.2% in subsequent average levels of IL-6 (P < .001) (results not shown).


Long-term adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and chronic inflammation in the prospective Whitehall II study.

Akbaraly TN, Shipley MJ, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M, Lowe G, Hamer M, Kivimaki M - Am. J. Med. (2014)

Average levels of IL-6 over 2 measures 5 years apart according to 6-year changes in the AHEI score among 4600 participants from the Whitehall II cohort. Adjusted geometric mean levels of IL-6 were estimated from linear regression models for 4 categories: participants who maintained a low AHEI score over the exposure period, participants who maintained high AHEI score, participants who increased their score, and participants who decreased their score. Models were fully adjusted for sex, age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, living alone, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. % difference (exp[regression coefficient] – 1)*100; a negative percentage difference expressed the percentage reduction in IL-6 levels in the relevant exposure group compared with the reference group.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4315808&req=5

fig2: Average levels of IL-6 over 2 measures 5 years apart according to 6-year changes in the AHEI score among 4600 participants from the Whitehall II cohort. Adjusted geometric mean levels of IL-6 were estimated from linear regression models for 4 categories: participants who maintained a low AHEI score over the exposure period, participants who maintained high AHEI score, participants who increased their score, and participants who decreased their score. Models were fully adjusted for sex, age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, living alone, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. % difference (exp[regression coefficient] – 1)*100; a negative percentage difference expressed the percentage reduction in IL-6 levels in the relevant exposure group compared with the reference group.
Mentions: The percentage difference in the average of 2 measures of IL-6 according to the AHEI change categories are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Compared with participants who maintained a lower AHEI score (n = 1591, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period, those who improved their adherence to AHEI guidelines (n = 681, 14.8%) and those who maintained high AHEI scores (n = 1736, 37.7%) over this period had lower average IL-6 values after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Further adjustment slightly attenuated but did not remove these associations (Table 2). Among the 2275 participants who had a lower AHEI score in 1991/1993, each 10-point increase in AHEI score over the 6-year exposure period was associated with a reduction of 4.2% in subsequent average levels of IL-6 (P < .001) (results not shown).

Bottom Line: However, to date the long-term associations between diet and inflammation have been poorly described.After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and health status, participants who maintained a high AHEI score (ie, a healthy diet, n = 1736, 37.7%) and those who improved this score over time (n = 681, 14.8%) showed significantly lower mean levels of interleukin-6 (1.84 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-1.98 and 1.84 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.70-1.99, respectively) than those who had a low AHEI score (n = 1594, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period (2.01 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.87-2.17).These data suggest that maintaining and improving adherence to healthy dietary recommendations may reduce the risk of long-term inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inserm U710, Montpellier, F-34000, France; University Montpellier II, Montpellier, France; EPHE, Paris, France; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: tasnime.akbaraly@inserm.fr.

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Related in: MedlinePlus