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Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

Berzunza-Cruz M, Rodríguez-Moreno Á, Gutiérrez-Granados G, González-Salazar C, Stephens CR, Hidalgo-Mihart M, Marina CF, Rebollar-Téllez EA, Bailón-Martínez D, Balcells CD, Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Sánchez-Cordero V, Becker I - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees.We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues.We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, México.

ABSTRACT
Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Dermal lesions in bats suggestive of Leishmania infection.A. lituratus found dead in Tabasco, Mexico, showing dermal lesions on the edge of the wing membrane, suggestive of a Leishmania infection.
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pntd.0003438.g002: Dermal lesions in bats suggestive of Leishmania infection.A. lituratus found dead in Tabasco, Mexico, showing dermal lesions on the edge of the wing membrane, suggestive of a Leishmania infection.

Mentions: None of the infected bats showed any dermal lesions and no apparent macroscopical lesions were found in the organs of the infected bats that tested positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana. Only one of the bats from Tabasco (A. lituratus), which was found dead, showed dermal lesions suggestive of a Leishmania infection (Fig. 2). The PCR analysis of the dermal lesion of this animal was positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, and although none of the additional tissues (heart, liver, spleen) of this animal showed lesions, they tested positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana by PCR.


Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

Berzunza-Cruz M, Rodríguez-Moreno Á, Gutiérrez-Granados G, González-Salazar C, Stephens CR, Hidalgo-Mihart M, Marina CF, Rebollar-Téllez EA, Bailón-Martínez D, Balcells CD, Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Sánchez-Cordero V, Becker I - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Dermal lesions in bats suggestive of Leishmania infection.A. lituratus found dead in Tabasco, Mexico, showing dermal lesions on the edge of the wing membrane, suggestive of a Leishmania infection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309399&req=5

pntd.0003438.g002: Dermal lesions in bats suggestive of Leishmania infection.A. lituratus found dead in Tabasco, Mexico, showing dermal lesions on the edge of the wing membrane, suggestive of a Leishmania infection.
Mentions: None of the infected bats showed any dermal lesions and no apparent macroscopical lesions were found in the organs of the infected bats that tested positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana. Only one of the bats from Tabasco (A. lituratus), which was found dead, showed dermal lesions suggestive of a Leishmania infection (Fig. 2). The PCR analysis of the dermal lesion of this animal was positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, and although none of the additional tissues (heart, liver, spleen) of this animal showed lesions, they tested positive for Leishmania (L.) mexicana by PCR.

Bottom Line: Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees.We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues.We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, México.

ABSTRACT
Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus