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Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

Ahmad P, Sarwat M, Bhat NA, Wani MR, Kazi AG, Tran LS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants.However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants.Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, S. P. College, Srinagar-190001, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

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Effect of Ca on oil content in seeds of mustard plants under Cd stress at different time intervals.Data presented are the means ± SE (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) among the treatments within a developmental stage. Symbols $, £ and ¥ denote significant change among the different developmental stages in the same treatment. DAT, days after treatment.
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pone.0114571.g001: Effect of Ca on oil content in seeds of mustard plants under Cd stress at different time intervals.Data presented are the means ± SE (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) among the treatments within a developmental stage. Symbols $, £ and ¥ denote significant change among the different developmental stages in the same treatment. DAT, days after treatment.

Mentions: Oil is an important product of mustard plants. Thus, it is important to examine the effect of Cd stress on oil content and the potential positive impact of Ca on Cd-stressed plants. Data shown in Fig. 1 indicated that Cd stress severely reduced the oil content. Specifically, the oil content was decreased to 24.11% and 21.55% at S2 and S4 concentrations, respectively, after 30 DAT from 29.33% of control S0 level. At 90 DAT of S2 and S4 concentrations, the oil content was decreased to 26.12% and 23.31%, respectively, from the control level of 32.71% (S0). However, supplementation of Ca with Cd showed enhanced oil content. For instance, at S5 treatment the oil content increased to 26.71% after 90 DAT, a 3.4% higher than that of respective S4 control (23.31%). This increase was significant, reflecting more than 10% increase of total oil content when compared with that of normal growing S0 control plants (32.71%). Non-significant change in oil content was observed on application of Ca to control plants. The data suggested that the oil percentage enhanced by Ca application on Cd stressed plants.


Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

Ahmad P, Sarwat M, Bhat NA, Wani MR, Kazi AG, Tran LS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of Ca on oil content in seeds of mustard plants under Cd stress at different time intervals.Data presented are the means ± SE (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) among the treatments within a developmental stage. Symbols $, £ and ¥ denote significant change among the different developmental stages in the same treatment. DAT, days after treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309397&req=5

pone.0114571.g001: Effect of Ca on oil content in seeds of mustard plants under Cd stress at different time intervals.Data presented are the means ± SE (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) among the treatments within a developmental stage. Symbols $, £ and ¥ denote significant change among the different developmental stages in the same treatment. DAT, days after treatment.
Mentions: Oil is an important product of mustard plants. Thus, it is important to examine the effect of Cd stress on oil content and the potential positive impact of Ca on Cd-stressed plants. Data shown in Fig. 1 indicated that Cd stress severely reduced the oil content. Specifically, the oil content was decreased to 24.11% and 21.55% at S2 and S4 concentrations, respectively, after 30 DAT from 29.33% of control S0 level. At 90 DAT of S2 and S4 concentrations, the oil content was decreased to 26.12% and 23.31%, respectively, from the control level of 32.71% (S0). However, supplementation of Ca with Cd showed enhanced oil content. For instance, at S5 treatment the oil content increased to 26.71% after 90 DAT, a 3.4% higher than that of respective S4 control (23.31%). This increase was significant, reflecting more than 10% increase of total oil content when compared with that of normal growing S0 control plants (32.71%). Non-significant change in oil content was observed on application of Ca to control plants. The data suggested that the oil percentage enhanced by Ca application on Cd stressed plants.

Bottom Line: Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants.However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants.Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, S. P. College, Srinagar-190001, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

Show MeSH