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A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

Fengler S, Spirer I, Neef M, Ecke M, Nieselt K, Hampp R - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions.In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity.These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Ecology of Plants, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Precise mission timeline of the experiment in orbit (grey) and related ground experiment (white). Universal time coordinated (UTC), time units are given in hours:minutes: seconds, experimental zero time (EZT). Arrowheads (∇) indicate sample fixation time points of sample groups FS, FC, and GS, respectively.
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fig5: Precise mission timeline of the experiment in orbit (grey) and related ground experiment (white). Universal time coordinated (UTC), time units are given in hours:minutes: seconds, experimental zero time (EZT). Arrowheads (∇) indicate sample fixation time points of sample groups FS, FC, and GS, respectively.

Mentions: The Simbox was launched on board of the unmanned spacecraft Shenzhou 8 on October 31, 2011, at 21:58 UTC (universal time coordinated) with a Long March 2F rocket from the cosmodrome in JSLC. The precise mission timings including sample fixation time points are illustrated in Figure 5 (for a gravity-level profile, see Supplementary Material S1 available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/547495). Experiment zero time (EZT) was set when the spacecraft reached the orbit. At EZT, the centrifuge was activated to run with 74.40 rpm. Within the spacecraft, the oxygen partial pressure ranged from 18.04 to 27.32 kPa, and the carbon dioxide partial pressure was between −0.03 and 0.46 kPa. Radiation measurements yielded a total dose of 5.93 to 8.1 mSv and an equivalent dose of 0.37 to 0.51 mSv/d near the Simbox incubator (telemetry data: Chinese authorities, personal communication). The pump system was activated after 5 days in space and injected the fixative solution from the fixative/waste unit into the CC's of FMs. This yielded a final RNAlater concentration of about 90% (v/v) after mixing. Temperature in CCs was kept at a nominal range of 22 to 24°C before, during, and after fixation (Figure 6). After 17 days in space, the spacecraft was separated from Tjangong-1 and touched ground on November 17, 2011. After landing and recovery of the capsule, samples were retrieved within 6 hours. The ECs were disassembled and stored around 4°C until they arrived in Tübingen on November 25, 2011. In the home laboratory, calli were harvested and stored at −80°C until processing.


A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

Fengler S, Spirer I, Neef M, Ecke M, Nieselt K, Hampp R - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Precise mission timeline of the experiment in orbit (grey) and related ground experiment (white). Universal time coordinated (UTC), time units are given in hours:minutes: seconds, experimental zero time (EZT). Arrowheads (∇) indicate sample fixation time points of sample groups FS, FC, and GS, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309294&req=5

fig5: Precise mission timeline of the experiment in orbit (grey) and related ground experiment (white). Universal time coordinated (UTC), time units are given in hours:minutes: seconds, experimental zero time (EZT). Arrowheads (∇) indicate sample fixation time points of sample groups FS, FC, and GS, respectively.
Mentions: The Simbox was launched on board of the unmanned spacecraft Shenzhou 8 on October 31, 2011, at 21:58 UTC (universal time coordinated) with a Long March 2F rocket from the cosmodrome in JSLC. The precise mission timings including sample fixation time points are illustrated in Figure 5 (for a gravity-level profile, see Supplementary Material S1 available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/547495). Experiment zero time (EZT) was set when the spacecraft reached the orbit. At EZT, the centrifuge was activated to run with 74.40 rpm. Within the spacecraft, the oxygen partial pressure ranged from 18.04 to 27.32 kPa, and the carbon dioxide partial pressure was between −0.03 and 0.46 kPa. Radiation measurements yielded a total dose of 5.93 to 8.1 mSv and an equivalent dose of 0.37 to 0.51 mSv/d near the Simbox incubator (telemetry data: Chinese authorities, personal communication). The pump system was activated after 5 days in space and injected the fixative solution from the fixative/waste unit into the CC's of FMs. This yielded a final RNAlater concentration of about 90% (v/v) after mixing. Temperature in CCs was kept at a nominal range of 22 to 24°C before, during, and after fixation (Figure 6). After 17 days in space, the spacecraft was separated from Tjangong-1 and touched ground on November 17, 2011. After landing and recovery of the capsule, samples were retrieved within 6 hours. The ECs were disassembled and stored around 4°C until they arrived in Tübingen on November 25, 2011. In the home laboratory, calli were harvested and stored at −80°C until processing.

Bottom Line: The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions.In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity.These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Ecology of Plants, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus