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A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

Fengler S, Spirer I, Neef M, Ecke M, Nieselt K, Hampp R - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions.In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity.These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Ecology of Plants, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Photograph of the inside of the Simbox incubator used within the flight/ground experiment (housing removed). The rotor of the reference centrifuge (position C05 for sample group FC) is indicated by a circle. The static experimental platform is in the middle and outside of the centrifuge rotor (position SP04 for sample group FS within the flight experiment and GS within the ground experiment, resp.) (photograph: DLR/Astrium).
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fig1: Photograph of the inside of the Simbox incubator used within the flight/ground experiment (housing removed). The rotor of the reference centrifuge (position C05 for sample group FC) is indicated by a circle. The static experimental platform is in the middle and outside of the centrifuge rotor (position SP04 for sample group FS within the flight experiment and GS within the ground experiment, resp.) (photograph: DLR/Astrium).

Mentions: The Simbox was a modification of the Biobox-6 [33, 34] which was developed for unmanned recoverable capsules and space shuttle missions. Development and production were carried out by Astrium/EADS, Friedrichshafen, Germany [35]. This incubator (size of 461 × 551 × 273 mm, internal volume of 34 L, max. power consumption of 130 W, and empty mass of 17 kg) served as carrier for an experiment/static platform with an integrated centrifuge rotor (provides 1 g in-flight control). The Simbox incubator (Figure 1) enabled sample cultivation at 22–24°C (nominal temperature range) and 30–40% humidity throughout the mission. A duplicate model of the Simbox was constructed for the ground experiment. Our biological approach (experiment number 16) was realized by means of three fully automated type V Experiment Unit Envelopes (EUE, plant cultivation unit, without illumination). EUEs consisted of support housing made of polyetherketone with two culture chambers each (front and rear CC, 31.7 × 24 × 14.3 mm ± 0.15 mm). Our biological material was positioned on substrate holders (slides) with plastic spikes (Figure 2). The latter were needed to keep the cultures in place. In order to allow gas exchange, the CCs were sealed with a biofoil made of polysulfone (Tecason S Polysulfone, Ensinger Inc., Washington-Pennsylvania, USA). In addition, a peristaltic pump (flow rate of ≥2.43 mL/min) was used to connect the CC to a fixative/waste unit (volume 20.3 mL ± 0.5 mL). EUEs were accommodated inside type I Experiment Containers (ECs) (Figure 3). Via sensors, parameters such as temperature, humidity, CO2, and O2 content as well as activation of the pump system were recorded and transmitted.


A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

Fengler S, Spirer I, Neef M, Ecke M, Nieselt K, Hampp R - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Photograph of the inside of the Simbox incubator used within the flight/ground experiment (housing removed). The rotor of the reference centrifuge (position C05 for sample group FC) is indicated by a circle. The static experimental platform is in the middle and outside of the centrifuge rotor (position SP04 for sample group FS within the flight experiment and GS within the ground experiment, resp.) (photograph: DLR/Astrium).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309294&req=5

fig1: Photograph of the inside of the Simbox incubator used within the flight/ground experiment (housing removed). The rotor of the reference centrifuge (position C05 for sample group FC) is indicated by a circle. The static experimental platform is in the middle and outside of the centrifuge rotor (position SP04 for sample group FS within the flight experiment and GS within the ground experiment, resp.) (photograph: DLR/Astrium).
Mentions: The Simbox was a modification of the Biobox-6 [33, 34] which was developed for unmanned recoverable capsules and space shuttle missions. Development and production were carried out by Astrium/EADS, Friedrichshafen, Germany [35]. This incubator (size of 461 × 551 × 273 mm, internal volume of 34 L, max. power consumption of 130 W, and empty mass of 17 kg) served as carrier for an experiment/static platform with an integrated centrifuge rotor (provides 1 g in-flight control). The Simbox incubator (Figure 1) enabled sample cultivation at 22–24°C (nominal temperature range) and 30–40% humidity throughout the mission. A duplicate model of the Simbox was constructed for the ground experiment. Our biological approach (experiment number 16) was realized by means of three fully automated type V Experiment Unit Envelopes (EUE, plant cultivation unit, without illumination). EUEs consisted of support housing made of polyetherketone with two culture chambers each (front and rear CC, 31.7 × 24 × 14.3 mm ± 0.15 mm). Our biological material was positioned on substrate holders (slides) with plastic spikes (Figure 2). The latter were needed to keep the cultures in place. In order to allow gas exchange, the CCs were sealed with a biofoil made of polysulfone (Tecason S Polysulfone, Ensinger Inc., Washington-Pennsylvania, USA). In addition, a peristaltic pump (flow rate of ≥2.43 mL/min) was used to connect the CC to a fixative/waste unit (volume 20.3 mL ± 0.5 mL). EUEs were accommodated inside type I Experiment Containers (ECs) (Figure 3). Via sensors, parameters such as temperature, humidity, CO2, and O2 content as well as activation of the pump system were recorded and transmitted.

Bottom Line: The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions.In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity.These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Ecology of Plants, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus