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Regulation of ICAM-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

Paulsen K, Tauber S, Dumrese C, Bradacs G, Simmet DM, Gölz N, Hauschild S, Raig C, Engeli S, Gutewort A, Hürlimann E, Biskup J, Unverdorben F, Rieder G, Hofmänner D, Mutschler L, Krammer S, Buttron I, Philpot C, Huge A, Lier H, Barz I, Engelmann F, Layer LE, Thiel CS, Ullrich O - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission.In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments.Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstraß 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.

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ICAM-1 expression in U937 cells, macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells, and primary human macrophages in different gravity conditions during parabolic flight experiment. ICAM-1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy following immunocytochemical staining. Cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions (incubator control) or exposed to different gravity conditions during the 19th DLR parabolic flight campaign. U937 cells were fixed either after PMA-activation in microgravity (μg group) or in 1 g (1 g control group). Differentiated U937 and primary macrophages were fixed after the microgravity phases (μg group) or after the 1 g phases before and after the μg phase (1 g control group). The level of ICAM-1 surface expression is represented by the mean fluorescent intensity assessed by flow cytometry. (a) ICAM-1 surface expression in myelomonocytic U937 cells (mon. U937) and macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells (max. U937) under standard cell culture conditions. (b) ICAM-1 surface expression in U937 cells with and without activation by PMA in different gravity conditions. (c) ICAM-1 surface expression in macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells in different gravity conditions. (d) ICAM-1 surface expression in primary macrophages in different gravity conditions. Data are given as median ± SE (*P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, and ***P < 0.01, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon or unpaired t-test).
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fig5: ICAM-1 expression in U937 cells, macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells, and primary human macrophages in different gravity conditions during parabolic flight experiment. ICAM-1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy following immunocytochemical staining. Cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions (incubator control) or exposed to different gravity conditions during the 19th DLR parabolic flight campaign. U937 cells were fixed either after PMA-activation in microgravity (μg group) or in 1 g (1 g control group). Differentiated U937 and primary macrophages were fixed after the microgravity phases (μg group) or after the 1 g phases before and after the μg phase (1 g control group). The level of ICAM-1 surface expression is represented by the mean fluorescent intensity assessed by flow cytometry. (a) ICAM-1 surface expression in myelomonocytic U937 cells (mon. U937) and macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells (max. U937) under standard cell culture conditions. (b) ICAM-1 surface expression in U937 cells with and without activation by PMA in different gravity conditions. (c) ICAM-1 surface expression in macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells in different gravity conditions. (d) ICAM-1 surface expression in primary macrophages in different gravity conditions. Data are given as median ± SE (*P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, and ***P < 0.01, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon or unpaired t-test).

Mentions: Nondifferentiated U937 Cells. Differentiation of U937 monocytic cells into macrophage-like cells significantly increased the cell surface expression of ICAM-1 (Figure 5(a)). Nondifferentiated U937 did not demonstrate differential expression of ICAM-1 in microgravity: neither in PMA-stimulated myelomonocytic U937 cells, nor in non-stimulated cells, any significant alteration of ICAM-1 expression could be detected in comparison between microgravity and 1 g conditions (Figure 5(b)). The only significant difference could be observed in nonstimulated U937 cells between the ground control group, the μg group, and the 1 g control group. Differences between 1 g ground and 1 g in-flight controls can be attributed to the flight itself (e.g., vibrations, handling of cell containers) and not to an altered gravity.


Regulation of ICAM-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

Paulsen K, Tauber S, Dumrese C, Bradacs G, Simmet DM, Gölz N, Hauschild S, Raig C, Engeli S, Gutewort A, Hürlimann E, Biskup J, Unverdorben F, Rieder G, Hofmänner D, Mutschler L, Krammer S, Buttron I, Philpot C, Huge A, Lier H, Barz I, Engelmann F, Layer LE, Thiel CS, Ullrich O - Biomed Res Int (2015)

ICAM-1 expression in U937 cells, macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells, and primary human macrophages in different gravity conditions during parabolic flight experiment. ICAM-1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy following immunocytochemical staining. Cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions (incubator control) or exposed to different gravity conditions during the 19th DLR parabolic flight campaign. U937 cells were fixed either after PMA-activation in microgravity (μg group) or in 1 g (1 g control group). Differentiated U937 and primary macrophages were fixed after the microgravity phases (μg group) or after the 1 g phases before and after the μg phase (1 g control group). The level of ICAM-1 surface expression is represented by the mean fluorescent intensity assessed by flow cytometry. (a) ICAM-1 surface expression in myelomonocytic U937 cells (mon. U937) and macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells (max. U937) under standard cell culture conditions. (b) ICAM-1 surface expression in U937 cells with and without activation by PMA in different gravity conditions. (c) ICAM-1 surface expression in macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells in different gravity conditions. (d) ICAM-1 surface expression in primary macrophages in different gravity conditions. Data are given as median ± SE (*P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, and ***P < 0.01, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon or unpaired t-test).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig5: ICAM-1 expression in U937 cells, macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells, and primary human macrophages in different gravity conditions during parabolic flight experiment. ICAM-1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy following immunocytochemical staining. Cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions (incubator control) or exposed to different gravity conditions during the 19th DLR parabolic flight campaign. U937 cells were fixed either after PMA-activation in microgravity (μg group) or in 1 g (1 g control group). Differentiated U937 and primary macrophages were fixed after the microgravity phases (μg group) or after the 1 g phases before and after the μg phase (1 g control group). The level of ICAM-1 surface expression is represented by the mean fluorescent intensity assessed by flow cytometry. (a) ICAM-1 surface expression in myelomonocytic U937 cells (mon. U937) and macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells (max. U937) under standard cell culture conditions. (b) ICAM-1 surface expression in U937 cells with and without activation by PMA in different gravity conditions. (c) ICAM-1 surface expression in macrophage-like differentiated U937 cells in different gravity conditions. (d) ICAM-1 surface expression in primary macrophages in different gravity conditions. Data are given as median ± SE (*P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, and ***P < 0.01, according to one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon or unpaired t-test).
Mentions: Nondifferentiated U937 Cells. Differentiation of U937 monocytic cells into macrophage-like cells significantly increased the cell surface expression of ICAM-1 (Figure 5(a)). Nondifferentiated U937 did not demonstrate differential expression of ICAM-1 in microgravity: neither in PMA-stimulated myelomonocytic U937 cells, nor in non-stimulated cells, any significant alteration of ICAM-1 expression could be detected in comparison between microgravity and 1 g conditions (Figure 5(b)). The only significant difference could be observed in nonstimulated U937 cells between the ground control group, the μg group, and the 1 g control group. Differences between 1 g ground and 1 g in-flight controls can be attributed to the flight itself (e.g., vibrations, handling of cell containers) and not to an altered gravity.

Bottom Line: In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission.In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments.Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstraß 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.

Show MeSH