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Space flight effects on antioxidant molecules in dry tardigrades: the TARDIKISS experiment.

Rizzo AM, Altiero T, Corsetto PA, Montorfano G, Guidetti R, Rebecchi L - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri.In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences.TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via D. Trentacoste 2, 20134 Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research.

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Micrographs by scanning electron microscopy of the tardigrade Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri showing its two physiological states. (a) Hydrated and metabolically active specimen. (b) Desiccated and metabolically inactive specimen. Bars: a = 10 μm; b = 5 μm.
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fig1: Micrographs by scanning electron microscopy of the tardigrade Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri showing its two physiological states. (a) Hydrated and metabolically active specimen. (b) Desiccated and metabolically inactive specimen. Bars: a = 10 μm; b = 5 μm.

Mentions: Two anhydrobiotic eutardigrade species were considered, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi (Murray, 1911) (Macrobiotidae) and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840) (Ramazzottiidae). Paramacrobiotus richtersi is the model species already used in the FOTON mission [1]. P. richtersi was extracted from a hazel leaf litter (sample code C3499); it is carnivorous, white in colour, and the population here considered is bisexual and amphimictic. R. oberhaeuseri (Figure 1) was extracted from the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. (1860) (sample code C3282); it is herbivorous, brown/red in colour, and the population considered in this study is unisexual and parthenogenetic. To extract tardigrades from their substrates, leaf litter and lichen were sprinkled with tap water and after 15 min submerged in water for 15 min at room temperature. Later, each substrate was sieved (mesh size of sieves: 250 μm and 37 μm) under running water; then animals were picked up from the sieved sediments with a glass pipette under a stereomicroscope.


Space flight effects on antioxidant molecules in dry tardigrades: the TARDIKISS experiment.

Rizzo AM, Altiero T, Corsetto PA, Montorfano G, Guidetti R, Rebecchi L - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Micrographs by scanning electron microscopy of the tardigrade Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri showing its two physiological states. (a) Hydrated and metabolically active specimen. (b) Desiccated and metabolically inactive specimen. Bars: a = 10 μm; b = 5 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309218&req=5

fig1: Micrographs by scanning electron microscopy of the tardigrade Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri showing its two physiological states. (a) Hydrated and metabolically active specimen. (b) Desiccated and metabolically inactive specimen. Bars: a = 10 μm; b = 5 μm.
Mentions: Two anhydrobiotic eutardigrade species were considered, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi (Murray, 1911) (Macrobiotidae) and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840) (Ramazzottiidae). Paramacrobiotus richtersi is the model species already used in the FOTON mission [1]. P. richtersi was extracted from a hazel leaf litter (sample code C3499); it is carnivorous, white in colour, and the population here considered is bisexual and amphimictic. R. oberhaeuseri (Figure 1) was extracted from the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. (1860) (sample code C3282); it is herbivorous, brown/red in colour, and the population considered in this study is unisexual and parthenogenetic. To extract tardigrades from their substrates, leaf litter and lichen were sprinkled with tap water and after 15 min submerged in water for 15 min at room temperature. Later, each substrate was sieved (mesh size of sieves: 250 μm and 37 μm) under running water; then animals were picked up from the sieved sediments with a glass pipette under a stereomicroscope.

Bottom Line: In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri.In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences.TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via D. Trentacoste 2, 20134 Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research.

Show MeSH