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Kicking in the Guts: Schistosoma mansoni Digestive Tract Proteins are Potential Candidates for Vaccine Development.

Figueiredo BC, Ricci ND, de Assis NR, de Morais SB, Fonseca CT, Oliveira SC - Front Immunol (2015)

Bottom Line: In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection.Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake.Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Imunologia de Doenças Infecciosas, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Ministério de Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that represents a major health problem in at least 74 tropical and subtropical countries. Current disease control strategies consist mainly of chemotherapy, which cannot prevent recurrent re-infection of people living in endemic area. In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection. Parasitic platyhelminthes of Schistosoma genus, which cause the disease, live in the blood vessels of definitive hosts where they are bathed in host blood for many years. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the host-parasite interface, so numerous tegument antigens have been assessed and the achieved protection never got even close to 100%. Besides the tegument, the digestive tract is the other major site of host-parasite interface. Since parasites feed on blood, they need to swallow a considerable amount of blood for nutrient acquisition. Host blood ingested by schistosomes passes through the esophagus and reaches the gut where many peptidases catalyze the proteolysis of blood cells. Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake. Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of S. mansoni emphasizing the digestive tract and its antigens tested as vaccine. Esophagus is represented in red, esophageal glands are green, gut lumen is black, and gastrodermis is gray. The reproductive organs, which are surrounded by the bifurcated gut, are represented in blue. The tegument is brown, as well as the oral and ventral suckers. The antigens are listed under the location they were identified in italics. Superoxide dismutase was identified both in the tegument and in the digestive tract.
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Figure 1: Schematic representation of S. mansoni emphasizing the digestive tract and its antigens tested as vaccine. Esophagus is represented in red, esophageal glands are green, gut lumen is black, and gastrodermis is gray. The reproductive organs, which are surrounded by the bifurcated gut, are represented in blue. The tegument is brown, as well as the oral and ventral suckers. The antigens are listed under the location they were identified in italics. Superoxide dismutase was identified both in the tegument and in the digestive tract.

Mentions: Hematophagous parasite S. mansoni succeeds in the tough job of surviving inside human host and this success can be attributed, among other abilities, to their capacity of actively feed via the digestive tract. Blood processing and nutrient uptake are critical for the survival of schistosomes and direct or indirect interruption of these processes may represent a realistic strategy for vaccine development. These interventions would probably lead worms to starvation, and consequently death, since insufficient supply of energy impairs growth, pairing, maturation, and fecundity. Here, we described the physiological function of S. mansoni alimentary tract and also reported some examples of successful vaccines formulated with digestive tract proteins, summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1.


Kicking in the Guts: Schistosoma mansoni Digestive Tract Proteins are Potential Candidates for Vaccine Development.

Figueiredo BC, Ricci ND, de Assis NR, de Morais SB, Fonseca CT, Oliveira SC - Front Immunol (2015)

Schematic representation of S. mansoni emphasizing the digestive tract and its antigens tested as vaccine. Esophagus is represented in red, esophageal glands are green, gut lumen is black, and gastrodermis is gray. The reproductive organs, which are surrounded by the bifurcated gut, are represented in blue. The tegument is brown, as well as the oral and ventral suckers. The antigens are listed under the location they were identified in italics. Superoxide dismutase was identified both in the tegument and in the digestive tract.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309203&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic representation of S. mansoni emphasizing the digestive tract and its antigens tested as vaccine. Esophagus is represented in red, esophageal glands are green, gut lumen is black, and gastrodermis is gray. The reproductive organs, which are surrounded by the bifurcated gut, are represented in blue. The tegument is brown, as well as the oral and ventral suckers. The antigens are listed under the location they were identified in italics. Superoxide dismutase was identified both in the tegument and in the digestive tract.
Mentions: Hematophagous parasite S. mansoni succeeds in the tough job of surviving inside human host and this success can be attributed, among other abilities, to their capacity of actively feed via the digestive tract. Blood processing and nutrient uptake are critical for the survival of schistosomes and direct or indirect interruption of these processes may represent a realistic strategy for vaccine development. These interventions would probably lead worms to starvation, and consequently death, since insufficient supply of energy impairs growth, pairing, maturation, and fecundity. Here, we described the physiological function of S. mansoni alimentary tract and also reported some examples of successful vaccines formulated with digestive tract proteins, summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1.

Bottom Line: In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection.Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake.Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Imunologia de Doenças Infecciosas, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Ministério de Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that represents a major health problem in at least 74 tropical and subtropical countries. Current disease control strategies consist mainly of chemotherapy, which cannot prevent recurrent re-infection of people living in endemic area. In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection. Parasitic platyhelminthes of Schistosoma genus, which cause the disease, live in the blood vessels of definitive hosts where they are bathed in host blood for many years. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the host-parasite interface, so numerous tegument antigens have been assessed and the achieved protection never got even close to 100%. Besides the tegument, the digestive tract is the other major site of host-parasite interface. Since parasites feed on blood, they need to swallow a considerable amount of blood for nutrient acquisition. Host blood ingested by schistosomes passes through the esophagus and reaches the gut where many peptidases catalyze the proteolysis of blood cells. Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake. Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus