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Epigenetic regulation of rice flowering and reproduction.

Shi J, Dong A, Shen WH - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice.Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, International Associated Laboratory of CNRS-Fudan-HUNAU on Plant Epigenome Research, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University Shanghai, China ; CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Université de Strasbourg Strasbourg, France.

ABSTRACT
Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world and has more recently becoming a monocotyledonous model plant in functional genomics research. During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice. Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regulatory networks of genetic and epigenetic control of rice flowering under short-day (A) and long-day (B) photoperiod conditions. Rice flowering network is integrated by two florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1, which are regulated by at least two pathways: the Hd1-dependent and the Ehd1-dependent pathways. Expressions of Hd1 and Ehd1 are further regulated by more upstream genes as indicated by different names in the circles. Arrows indicate for transcriptional activation, whereas bars indicate for transcriptional repression. Different color spheres surrounding the flowering gene circles indicate for different regulations by the indicated histone modifications at the gene locus, currently described in literatures.
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Figure 1: Regulatory networks of genetic and epigenetic control of rice flowering under short-day (A) and long-day (B) photoperiod conditions. Rice flowering network is integrated by two florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1, which are regulated by at least two pathways: the Hd1-dependent and the Ehd1-dependent pathways. Expressions of Hd1 and Ehd1 are further regulated by more upstream genes as indicated by different names in the circles. Arrows indicate for transcriptional activation, whereas bars indicate for transcriptional repression. Different color spheres surrounding the flowering gene circles indicate for different regulations by the indicated histone modifications at the gene locus, currently described in literatures.

Mentions: Flowering represents the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, a key developmental switch during the plant life cycle. Flowering time is precisely controlled by complex gene network that integrates environmental signals, such as day length (photoperiod), light intensity and quality, and ambient temperature, as well as endogenous cues involving plant hormones (Albani and Coupland, 2010; Shrestha et al., 2014). Photoperiod is one of the most predictable cues in nature, and according to photoperiod responsiveness plants can be categorized into three groups: long-day (LD) plants, short-day (SD) plants, and day-neutral plants. Arabidopsis is a facultative LD plant whose flowering is accelerated when grown under LD photoperiods. Furthermore, flowering of most Arabidopsis ecotypes is promoted by a prolonged exposure to the cold of winter (a process known as vernalization), which has an epigenetic basis of competence memory (Ream et al., 2012; Song et al., 2012). During recent years, many chromatin modifiers have been shown as involved in Arabidopsis flowering time regulation, with majority of them acting via the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a key flowering repressor at which vernalization and autonomous pathways converge (Berr et al., 2011; He, 2012; Ietswaart et al., 2012). In contrast to Arabidopsis, rice is a facultative SD plant and does not require vernalization to induce flowering and does not contain a FLC homolog. The complex gene network of rice flowering pathways primarily consists of flowering activators, and remarkably several chromatin modifiers have been shown recently as involved in rice flowering time control (Figure 1).


Epigenetic regulation of rice flowering and reproduction.

Shi J, Dong A, Shen WH - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Regulatory networks of genetic and epigenetic control of rice flowering under short-day (A) and long-day (B) photoperiod conditions. Rice flowering network is integrated by two florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1, which are regulated by at least two pathways: the Hd1-dependent and the Ehd1-dependent pathways. Expressions of Hd1 and Ehd1 are further regulated by more upstream genes as indicated by different names in the circles. Arrows indicate for transcriptional activation, whereas bars indicate for transcriptional repression. Different color spheres surrounding the flowering gene circles indicate for different regulations by the indicated histone modifications at the gene locus, currently described in literatures.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309181&req=5

Figure 1: Regulatory networks of genetic and epigenetic control of rice flowering under short-day (A) and long-day (B) photoperiod conditions. Rice flowering network is integrated by two florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1, which are regulated by at least two pathways: the Hd1-dependent and the Ehd1-dependent pathways. Expressions of Hd1 and Ehd1 are further regulated by more upstream genes as indicated by different names in the circles. Arrows indicate for transcriptional activation, whereas bars indicate for transcriptional repression. Different color spheres surrounding the flowering gene circles indicate for different regulations by the indicated histone modifications at the gene locus, currently described in literatures.
Mentions: Flowering represents the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, a key developmental switch during the plant life cycle. Flowering time is precisely controlled by complex gene network that integrates environmental signals, such as day length (photoperiod), light intensity and quality, and ambient temperature, as well as endogenous cues involving plant hormones (Albani and Coupland, 2010; Shrestha et al., 2014). Photoperiod is one of the most predictable cues in nature, and according to photoperiod responsiveness plants can be categorized into three groups: long-day (LD) plants, short-day (SD) plants, and day-neutral plants. Arabidopsis is a facultative LD plant whose flowering is accelerated when grown under LD photoperiods. Furthermore, flowering of most Arabidopsis ecotypes is promoted by a prolonged exposure to the cold of winter (a process known as vernalization), which has an epigenetic basis of competence memory (Ream et al., 2012; Song et al., 2012). During recent years, many chromatin modifiers have been shown as involved in Arabidopsis flowering time regulation, with majority of them acting via the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a key flowering repressor at which vernalization and autonomous pathways converge (Berr et al., 2011; He, 2012; Ietswaart et al., 2012). In contrast to Arabidopsis, rice is a facultative SD plant and does not require vernalization to induce flowering and does not contain a FLC homolog. The complex gene network of rice flowering pathways primarily consists of flowering activators, and remarkably several chromatin modifiers have been shown recently as involved in rice flowering time control (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice.Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, International Associated Laboratory of CNRS-Fudan-HUNAU on Plant Epigenome Research, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University Shanghai, China ; CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Université de Strasbourg Strasbourg, France.

ABSTRACT
Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world and has more recently becoming a monocotyledonous model plant in functional genomics research. During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice. Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus