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Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children.

Pugin F, Metz AJ, Stauffer M, Wolf M, Jenni OG, Huber R - F1000Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls).Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group.The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Child Development Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland ; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean ± SEM of maximal n (auditory n-back, ANB) per group and test session (PRE, POST, FU).The training group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST and to FU. The control group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST, but not FU. * indicates significant changes within group (training (red), control (black); paired t-test, p < 0.05. # indicates significant performance difference at the respective test session (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05)).
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f4: Mean ± SEM of maximal n (auditory n-back, ANB) per group and test session (PRE, POST, FU).The training group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST and to FU. The control group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST, but not FU. * indicates significant changes within group (training (red), control (black); paired t-test, p < 0.05. # indicates significant performance difference at the respective test session (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05)).

Mentions: In a next step, we analyzed performance in each cognitive test at PRE, POST and FU, comparing the training with the control group (Table 1). A mixed ANOVA test revealed a significant difference between ‘group’ and ‘test session’ in auditory n-back (ANB) performance (Table 1). No other test (letter-number sequencing task, number-span task, matrix reasoning task, Stroop task, and Flanker task) showed a significant change. Between-group analysis of performance differences showed significantly higher increases in maximal ANB performance from PRE to POST and to FU in the training compared to controls (Figure 4). The number of days between PRE and FU (i.e., the time interval between the first and the last session) did not correlate with the improvements in ANB (Pearson correlation).


Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children.

Pugin F, Metz AJ, Stauffer M, Wolf M, Jenni OG, Huber R - F1000Res (2014)

Mean ± SEM of maximal n (auditory n-back, ANB) per group and test session (PRE, POST, FU).The training group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST and to FU. The control group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST, but not FU. * indicates significant changes within group (training (red), control (black); paired t-test, p < 0.05. # indicates significant performance difference at the respective test session (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309169&req=5

f4: Mean ± SEM of maximal n (auditory n-back, ANB) per group and test session (PRE, POST, FU).The training group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST and to FU. The control group showed a significant increase from PRE to POST, but not FU. * indicates significant changes within group (training (red), control (black); paired t-test, p < 0.05. # indicates significant performance difference at the respective test session (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05)).
Mentions: In a next step, we analyzed performance in each cognitive test at PRE, POST and FU, comparing the training with the control group (Table 1). A mixed ANOVA test revealed a significant difference between ‘group’ and ‘test session’ in auditory n-back (ANB) performance (Table 1). No other test (letter-number sequencing task, number-span task, matrix reasoning task, Stroop task, and Flanker task) showed a significant change. Between-group analysis of performance differences showed significantly higher increases in maximal ANB performance from PRE to POST and to FU in the training compared to controls (Figure 4). The number of days between PRE and FU (i.e., the time interval between the first and the last session) did not correlate with the improvements in ANB (Pearson correlation).

Bottom Line: Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls).Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group.The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Child Development Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland ; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus