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The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review.

Aman JE, Elangovan N, Yeh IL, Konczak J - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is.Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures.There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Sensorimotor Control Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA ; Center for Clinical Movement Science, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system.

Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review.

Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases.

Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Passive motion apparatus used for determining proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (A) A subject sitting with their right arm resting on a passive motion apparatus (PMA). The PMA is used for passively moving the subject's arm, in this case specifically the elbow, in order to determine proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (B) Stimuli intensities are plotted across the trials performed. In this case, an adaptive algorithm can be used, which determines the next delivered stimulus based on the correctness of the subject's previous response. (C) A psychophysical function is deduced from the responses of the subject, with a correct response level of 75% taken as the just-noticeable-different threshold.
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Figure 3: Passive motion apparatus used for determining proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (A) A subject sitting with their right arm resting on a passive motion apparatus (PMA). The PMA is used for passively moving the subject's arm, in this case specifically the elbow, in order to determine proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (B) Stimuli intensities are plotted across the trials performed. In this case, an adaptive algorithm can be used, which determines the next delivered stimulus based on the correctness of the subject's previous response. (C) A psychophysical function is deduced from the responses of the subject, with a correct response level of 75% taken as the just-noticeable-different threshold.

Mentions: These interventions typically required some type of passive motion apparatus and focused either on single-joint (wrist or knee) (Carel et al., 2000; Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008; Ju et al., 2010; Beets et al., 2012) or multi-joint movement (thumb movement or assisted reaching via robotic arm) (Kaelin-Lang et al., 2005; Wong et al., 2011). Although there are several forms of apparatus' that have been used that are often customized for a specific joint or movement type, Figure 3 provides an example of such devices. Like active training protocols widely divergent rates of functional or sensory improvement were reported ranging from a 0 to 47% change from pre- to post-test. Most occluded vision of the moving limb (Carel et al., 2000; Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2011; Beets et al., 2012) but some allowed vision (Wong et al., 2011; Beets et al., 2012) or provided additional synchronized auditory feedback (Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008). All studies except Ju et al. (2010) reported a range of 0–23% improvements.


The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review.

Aman JE, Elangovan N, Yeh IL, Konczak J - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Passive motion apparatus used for determining proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (A) A subject sitting with their right arm resting on a passive motion apparatus (PMA). The PMA is used for passively moving the subject's arm, in this case specifically the elbow, in order to determine proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (B) Stimuli intensities are plotted across the trials performed. In this case, an adaptive algorithm can be used, which determines the next delivered stimulus based on the correctness of the subject's previous response. (C) A psychophysical function is deduced from the responses of the subject, with a correct response level of 75% taken as the just-noticeable-different threshold.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309156&req=5

Figure 3: Passive motion apparatus used for determining proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (A) A subject sitting with their right arm resting on a passive motion apparatus (PMA). The PMA is used for passively moving the subject's arm, in this case specifically the elbow, in order to determine proprioceptive acuity and sensitivity. (B) Stimuli intensities are plotted across the trials performed. In this case, an adaptive algorithm can be used, which determines the next delivered stimulus based on the correctness of the subject's previous response. (C) A psychophysical function is deduced from the responses of the subject, with a correct response level of 75% taken as the just-noticeable-different threshold.
Mentions: These interventions typically required some type of passive motion apparatus and focused either on single-joint (wrist or knee) (Carel et al., 2000; Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008; Ju et al., 2010; Beets et al., 2012) or multi-joint movement (thumb movement or assisted reaching via robotic arm) (Kaelin-Lang et al., 2005; Wong et al., 2011). Although there are several forms of apparatus' that have been used that are often customized for a specific joint or movement type, Figure 3 provides an example of such devices. Like active training protocols widely divergent rates of functional or sensory improvement were reported ranging from a 0 to 47% change from pre- to post-test. Most occluded vision of the moving limb (Carel et al., 2000; Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2011; Beets et al., 2012) but some allowed vision (Wong et al., 2011; Beets et al., 2012) or provided additional synchronized auditory feedback (Dechaumont-Palacin et al., 2008). All studies except Ju et al. (2010) reported a range of 0–23% improvements.

Bottom Line: However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is.Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures.There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Sensorimotor Control Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA ; Center for Clinical Movement Science, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system.

Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review.

Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases.

Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus