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The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review.

Aman JE, Elangovan N, Yeh IL, Konczak J - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is.Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures.There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Sensorimotor Control Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA ; Center for Clinical Movement Science, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system.

Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review.

Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases.

Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow diagram of study selection process.
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Figure 1: Flow diagram of study selection process.

Mentions: The initial keyword search yielded 1284 articles. Three authors (Joshua E. Aman, Naveen Elangovan, I-Ling Yeh) reviewed all abstracts independently and applied criteria #1 and #2. After applying these criteria 162 articles remained. That is, the vast majority of articles (1122) did not report a quantifiable measure of proprioceptive function or did not include an intervention. Of those 162 articles, 111 studies were excluded, because they employed tasks where multimodal sensory information was always available during training or testing, and thus, the proprioceptive training aspect of the study was impossible to assess. We included those studies that utilized measurements indicative of proprioceptive function (e.g., clinical rating scales with subsections indicative of proprioceptive function). Typically, these studies involved measuring postural control where vision was available (see Figure 1 for an overview). The final 51 articles examined a total of 1854 subjects with sample sizes ranging from 5 to 186 participants. Study populations included healthy participants [20 articles], stroke [21], PD [4], focal dystonia [3], multiple sclerosis and ataxia neuropathy [2], cerebral palsy [1], dementia [1], osteoarthritis of the knee [7], chronic ankle instability [6], anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction [2], chronic neck pain [2], and hemophilia [1]. Relative to the trained anatomical locations, articles focused on whole body/posture [22 articles], neck [1], shoulder/elbow [8], hand/wrist [16], knee [8], and ankle [3]. Note that some articles included more than one disease entity or anatomical location.


The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review.

Aman JE, Elangovan N, Yeh IL, Konczak J - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Flow diagram of study selection process.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309156&req=5

Figure 1: Flow diagram of study selection process.
Mentions: The initial keyword search yielded 1284 articles. Three authors (Joshua E. Aman, Naveen Elangovan, I-Ling Yeh) reviewed all abstracts independently and applied criteria #1 and #2. After applying these criteria 162 articles remained. That is, the vast majority of articles (1122) did not report a quantifiable measure of proprioceptive function or did not include an intervention. Of those 162 articles, 111 studies were excluded, because they employed tasks where multimodal sensory information was always available during training or testing, and thus, the proprioceptive training aspect of the study was impossible to assess. We included those studies that utilized measurements indicative of proprioceptive function (e.g., clinical rating scales with subsections indicative of proprioceptive function). Typically, these studies involved measuring postural control where vision was available (see Figure 1 for an overview). The final 51 articles examined a total of 1854 subjects with sample sizes ranging from 5 to 186 participants. Study populations included healthy participants [20 articles], stroke [21], PD [4], focal dystonia [3], multiple sclerosis and ataxia neuropathy [2], cerebral palsy [1], dementia [1], osteoarthritis of the knee [7], chronic ankle instability [6], anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction [2], chronic neck pain [2], and hemophilia [1]. Relative to the trained anatomical locations, articles focused on whole body/posture [22 articles], neck [1], shoulder/elbow [8], hand/wrist [16], knee [8], and ankle [3]. Note that some articles included more than one disease entity or anatomical location.

Bottom Line: However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is.Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures.There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Sensorimotor Control Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA ; Center for Clinical Movement Science, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system.

Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review.

Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases.

Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus