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Power law relationship between cell cycle duration and cell volume in the early embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Arata Y, Takagi H, Sako Y, Sawa H - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution.Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes.Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Fate Decision, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Hyogo, Japan ; Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Saitama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cell size is a critical factor for cell cycle regulation. In Xenopus embryos after midblastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle duration elongates in a power law relationship with the cell radius squared. This correlation has been explained by the model that cell surface area is a candidate to determine cell cycle duration. However, it remains unknown whether this second power law is conserved in other animal embryos. Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution. Interestingly, the powers of the time-size relationship could be grouped into at least three classes: highly size-correlated, moderately size-correlated, and potentially a size-non-correlated class according to C. elegans founder cell lineages (1.2, 0.81, and <0.39 in radius, respectively). Thus, the power law relationship is conserved in Xenopus and C. elegans, while the absolute powers in C. elegans were different from that in Xenopus. Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes. The power of the volume relationship was closest to that of the time-size relationship in the highly size-correlated class. This correlation raised the possibility that the time-size relationship, at least in the highly size-correlated class, is explained by the volume ratio of nuclear size and cell size. Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The duration of cell cycle phases in C. elegans embryos. The duration of the (A) intermitotic phase or (B) mitotic phase in the size-correlated class; AB (green dot), MS (blue square), C (light green triangle), and P (magenta triangle) lineages are shown in linear plots in the vertical axis. The cell generations in each founder cell lineage are shown in the horizontal axis. Data points are displaced along the horizontal axis to avoid overlap (A,B). This data displacement does not affect exponentiation of data. Duration data were obtained from three wild-type embryos.
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Figure 4: The duration of cell cycle phases in C. elegans embryos. The duration of the (A) intermitotic phase or (B) mitotic phase in the size-correlated class; AB (green dot), MS (blue square), C (light green triangle), and P (magenta triangle) lineages are shown in linear plots in the vertical axis. The cell generations in each founder cell lineage are shown in the horizontal axis. Data points are displaced along the horizontal axis to avoid overlap (A,B). This data displacement does not affect exponentiation of data. Duration data were obtained from three wild-type embryos.

Mentions: To determine which cell cycle phase was responsible for elongation of the cell cycle duration, we measured the duration of the intermitotic and mitotic phases in cells in the size-correlated AB, MS, C, and P lineages. The duration of the intermitotic phase was elongated exponentially as the rounds of cell division increased, and became dominant in cell cycle duration in later generations (Figure 4A), whereas the duration of the mitotic phase was relatively constant among these lineages (Figure 4B). These observations indicated that cell cycle elongation was due to lengthening of the intermitotic phase but not the mitotic phase.


Power law relationship between cell cycle duration and cell volume in the early embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Arata Y, Takagi H, Sako Y, Sawa H - Front Physiol (2015)

The duration of cell cycle phases in C. elegans embryos. The duration of the (A) intermitotic phase or (B) mitotic phase in the size-correlated class; AB (green dot), MS (blue square), C (light green triangle), and P (magenta triangle) lineages are shown in linear plots in the vertical axis. The cell generations in each founder cell lineage are shown in the horizontal axis. Data points are displaced along the horizontal axis to avoid overlap (A,B). This data displacement does not affect exponentiation of data. Duration data were obtained from three wild-type embryos.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309120&req=5

Figure 4: The duration of cell cycle phases in C. elegans embryos. The duration of the (A) intermitotic phase or (B) mitotic phase in the size-correlated class; AB (green dot), MS (blue square), C (light green triangle), and P (magenta triangle) lineages are shown in linear plots in the vertical axis. The cell generations in each founder cell lineage are shown in the horizontal axis. Data points are displaced along the horizontal axis to avoid overlap (A,B). This data displacement does not affect exponentiation of data. Duration data were obtained from three wild-type embryos.
Mentions: To determine which cell cycle phase was responsible for elongation of the cell cycle duration, we measured the duration of the intermitotic and mitotic phases in cells in the size-correlated AB, MS, C, and P lineages. The duration of the intermitotic phase was elongated exponentially as the rounds of cell division increased, and became dominant in cell cycle duration in later generations (Figure 4A), whereas the duration of the mitotic phase was relatively constant among these lineages (Figure 4B). These observations indicated that cell cycle elongation was due to lengthening of the intermitotic phase but not the mitotic phase.

Bottom Line: Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution.Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes.Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Fate Decision, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Hyogo, Japan ; Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Saitama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cell size is a critical factor for cell cycle regulation. In Xenopus embryos after midblastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle duration elongates in a power law relationship with the cell radius squared. This correlation has been explained by the model that cell surface area is a candidate to determine cell cycle duration. However, it remains unknown whether this second power law is conserved in other animal embryos. Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution. Interestingly, the powers of the time-size relationship could be grouped into at least three classes: highly size-correlated, moderately size-correlated, and potentially a size-non-correlated class according to C. elegans founder cell lineages (1.2, 0.81, and <0.39 in radius, respectively). Thus, the power law relationship is conserved in Xenopus and C. elegans, while the absolute powers in C. elegans were different from that in Xenopus. Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes. The power of the volume relationship was closest to that of the time-size relationship in the highly size-correlated class. This correlation raised the possibility that the time-size relationship, at least in the highly size-correlated class, is explained by the volume ratio of nuclear size and cell size. Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus