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Power law relationship between cell cycle duration and cell volume in the early embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Arata Y, Takagi H, Sako Y, Sawa H - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution.Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes.Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Fate Decision, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Hyogo, Japan ; Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Saitama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cell size is a critical factor for cell cycle regulation. In Xenopus embryos after midblastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle duration elongates in a power law relationship with the cell radius squared. This correlation has been explained by the model that cell surface area is a candidate to determine cell cycle duration. However, it remains unknown whether this second power law is conserved in other animal embryos. Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution. Interestingly, the powers of the time-size relationship could be grouped into at least three classes: highly size-correlated, moderately size-correlated, and potentially a size-non-correlated class according to C. elegans founder cell lineages (1.2, 0.81, and <0.39 in radius, respectively). Thus, the power law relationship is conserved in Xenopus and C. elegans, while the absolute powers in C. elegans were different from that in Xenopus. Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes. The power of the volume relationship was closest to that of the time-size relationship in the highly size-correlated class. This correlation raised the possibility that the time-size relationship, at least in the highly size-correlated class, is explained by the volume ratio of nuclear size and cell size. Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Powers of the T–V relationship could be classified into three classes. T–V relationships in each lineage in the logarithmic (A) or linear (B) scale were fitted by a power law model. Statistical analysis combining regression analysis and a bootstrap method were performed 10,000 times, using the same data used in Figure 2. The estimated power is indicated in the horizontal axis, while the appearance frequencies of the values of power is indicated in the vertical axis. The 95% CIs of the power of the T–V relationship were determined by the appearance frequency and are shown by long horizontal bars. Data for AB, MS, C, P, E, and D lineages are shown in green, blue, light green, magenta, orange, and gray, respectively.
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Figure 3: Powers of the T–V relationship could be classified into three classes. T–V relationships in each lineage in the logarithmic (A) or linear (B) scale were fitted by a power law model. Statistical analysis combining regression analysis and a bootstrap method were performed 10,000 times, using the same data used in Figure 2. The estimated power is indicated in the horizontal axis, while the appearance frequencies of the values of power is indicated in the vertical axis. The 95% CIs of the power of the T–V relationship were determined by the appearance frequency and are shown by long horizontal bars. Data for AB, MS, C, P, E, and D lineages are shown in green, blue, light green, magenta, orange, and gray, respectively.

Mentions: Absolute values of power in the T–V relationship (Figure 2) were similar between AB and MS lineages (0.27) and between C and P lineages (0.41). Bootstrapping statistical analyses showed that the 95% CIs of the powers overlapped between AB and MS, C and P, and E and D lineages (Figures 3A,B). The larger absolute values of power in the C and P lineages indicated that the cell cycle duration elongates rapidly as the cell volume decreases (the highly size-correlated class). In contrast, the smaller absolute values of power in the AB and MS lineages indicated that the cell cycle duration elongates slowly (the moderately size-correlated class). When the power is zero, the cell cycle duration is constant or does not correlate with changes in cell size, indicating a size-non-correlated class. Cells in the E and D lineages exhibited lower values of power. Although it remains unclear due to small sample number, cells in the E and D lineages may be classified in another class with lower values of power, possibly the size-non-correlated class. These results suggest that the powers of the T–V relationship could be grouped into at least three classes.


Power law relationship between cell cycle duration and cell volume in the early embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Arata Y, Takagi H, Sako Y, Sawa H - Front Physiol (2015)

Powers of the T–V relationship could be classified into three classes. T–V relationships in each lineage in the logarithmic (A) or linear (B) scale were fitted by a power law model. Statistical analysis combining regression analysis and a bootstrap method were performed 10,000 times, using the same data used in Figure 2. The estimated power is indicated in the horizontal axis, while the appearance frequencies of the values of power is indicated in the vertical axis. The 95% CIs of the power of the T–V relationship were determined by the appearance frequency and are shown by long horizontal bars. Data for AB, MS, C, P, E, and D lineages are shown in green, blue, light green, magenta, orange, and gray, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309120&req=5

Figure 3: Powers of the T–V relationship could be classified into three classes. T–V relationships in each lineage in the logarithmic (A) or linear (B) scale were fitted by a power law model. Statistical analysis combining regression analysis and a bootstrap method were performed 10,000 times, using the same data used in Figure 2. The estimated power is indicated in the horizontal axis, while the appearance frequencies of the values of power is indicated in the vertical axis. The 95% CIs of the power of the T–V relationship were determined by the appearance frequency and are shown by long horizontal bars. Data for AB, MS, C, P, E, and D lineages are shown in green, blue, light green, magenta, orange, and gray, respectively.
Mentions: Absolute values of power in the T–V relationship (Figure 2) were similar between AB and MS lineages (0.27) and between C and P lineages (0.41). Bootstrapping statistical analyses showed that the 95% CIs of the powers overlapped between AB and MS, C and P, and E and D lineages (Figures 3A,B). The larger absolute values of power in the C and P lineages indicated that the cell cycle duration elongates rapidly as the cell volume decreases (the highly size-correlated class). In contrast, the smaller absolute values of power in the AB and MS lineages indicated that the cell cycle duration elongates slowly (the moderately size-correlated class). When the power is zero, the cell cycle duration is constant or does not correlate with changes in cell size, indicating a size-non-correlated class. Cells in the E and D lineages exhibited lower values of power. Although it remains unclear due to small sample number, cells in the E and D lineages may be classified in another class with lower values of power, possibly the size-non-correlated class. These results suggest that the powers of the T–V relationship could be grouped into at least three classes.

Bottom Line: Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution.Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes.Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Fate Decision, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Hyogo, Japan ; Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Saitama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cell size is a critical factor for cell cycle regulation. In Xenopus embryos after midblastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle duration elongates in a power law relationship with the cell radius squared. This correlation has been explained by the model that cell surface area is a candidate to determine cell cycle duration. However, it remains unknown whether this second power law is conserved in other animal embryos. Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution. Interestingly, the powers of the time-size relationship could be grouped into at least three classes: highly size-correlated, moderately size-correlated, and potentially a size-non-correlated class according to C. elegans founder cell lineages (1.2, 0.81, and <0.39 in radius, respectively). Thus, the power law relationship is conserved in Xenopus and C. elegans, while the absolute powers in C. elegans were different from that in Xenopus. Furthermore, we found that the volume ratio between the nucleus and cell exhibited a power law relationship in the size-correlated classes. The power of the volume relationship was closest to that of the time-size relationship in the highly size-correlated class. This correlation raised the possibility that the time-size relationship, at least in the highly size-correlated class, is explained by the volume ratio of nuclear size and cell size. Thus, our quantitative measurements shed a light on the possibility that early embryonic C. elegans cell cycle duration is coordinated with cell size as a result of geometric constraints between intracellular structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus