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Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

Cona G, Kliegel M, Bisiacchi PS - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance.ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes.Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padua Padua, Italy.

ABSTRACT
So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

No MeSH data available.


Recognition phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional recognized PM cues (especially unpleasant ones) from recognized ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a diminished frontal positivity (i.e., the FN400) and an increased parietal positivity (old/new effect and LPP) for the recognized PM cues. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased positivity for pleasant pictures, which was widely expressed over the scalp but more pronounced over the right hemisphere. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for recognized ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and recognized PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
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Figure 4: Recognition phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional recognized PM cues (especially unpleasant ones) from recognized ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a diminished frontal positivity (i.e., the FN400) and an increased parietal positivity (old/new effect and LPP) for the recognized PM cues. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased positivity for pleasant pictures, which was widely expressed over the scalp but more pronounced over the right hemisphere. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for recognized ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and recognized PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.

Mentions: The fourth PLS analysis (recognition phase) included the ERPs elicited by ongoing stimuli and PM cues included in the recognition task. This analysis revealed two significant LVs (both ps < 0.001) that accounted for 70.41 and 17.05% of the crossblock covariance, respectively. LV1 distinguished the recognized PM cues (especially the emotional PM cues) from the recognized ongoing pictures (Figure 4A). It is noteworthy that the higher design score was obtained for unpleasant PM cues. Thus, this LV seems to represent the interaction between the recognition effect and the emotion effect. The recognition effect was modulated by the emotional valence and was expressed in two time windows. The first modulation represented a transient increased frontal positivity, for the ongoing pictures, which occurred in the 300–400 ms time window and was likely to reflect a FN400. The latter modulation reflected an increased sustained positivity for the emotional PM cues (especially for the unpleasant ones), in the time window between 500 and 900 ms. This modulation was widely expressed over the scalp, but was particularly pronounced over the parietal sites, and was the result of the overlap between the recognition old/new effect and the LPP (Figure 4C).


Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

Cona G, Kliegel M, Bisiacchi PS - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Recognition phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional recognized PM cues (especially unpleasant ones) from recognized ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a diminished frontal positivity (i.e., the FN400) and an increased parietal positivity (old/new effect and LPP) for the recognized PM cues. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased positivity for pleasant pictures, which was widely expressed over the scalp but more pronounced over the right hemisphere. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for recognized ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and recognized PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309118&req=5

Figure 4: Recognition phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional recognized PM cues (especially unpleasant ones) from recognized ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a diminished frontal positivity (i.e., the FN400) and an increased parietal positivity (old/new effect and LPP) for the recognized PM cues. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased positivity for pleasant pictures, which was widely expressed over the scalp but more pronounced over the right hemisphere. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for recognized ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and recognized PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
Mentions: The fourth PLS analysis (recognition phase) included the ERPs elicited by ongoing stimuli and PM cues included in the recognition task. This analysis revealed two significant LVs (both ps < 0.001) that accounted for 70.41 and 17.05% of the crossblock covariance, respectively. LV1 distinguished the recognized PM cues (especially the emotional PM cues) from the recognized ongoing pictures (Figure 4A). It is noteworthy that the higher design score was obtained for unpleasant PM cues. Thus, this LV seems to represent the interaction between the recognition effect and the emotion effect. The recognition effect was modulated by the emotional valence and was expressed in two time windows. The first modulation represented a transient increased frontal positivity, for the ongoing pictures, which occurred in the 300–400 ms time window and was likely to reflect a FN400. The latter modulation reflected an increased sustained positivity for the emotional PM cues (especially for the unpleasant ones), in the time window between 500 and 900 ms. This modulation was widely expressed over the scalp, but was particularly pronounced over the parietal sites, and was the result of the overlap between the recognition old/new effect and the LPP (Figure 4C).

Bottom Line: So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance.ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes.Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padua Padua, Italy.

ABSTRACT
So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

No MeSH data available.