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Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

Cona G, Kliegel M, Bisiacchi PS - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance.ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes.Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padua Padua, Italy.

ABSTRACT
So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

No MeSH data available.


Retrieval phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional PM cues from ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a frontal positivity and a parietal positivity, which was the result of the prospective positivity and the LPP. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased widespread positivity for pleasant pictures in both earlier and later time windows. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
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Figure 3: Retrieval phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional PM cues from ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a frontal positivity and a parietal positivity, which was the result of the prospective positivity and the LPP. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased widespread positivity for pleasant pictures in both earlier and later time windows. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.

Mentions: The third PLS analysis (retrieval phase) included the ERPs elicited by the PM cues and by the ongoing stimuli having the same emotional valence of the PM cues in that session. This analysis revealed two significant LVs (both ps < 0.001) that accounted for 71.46 and 20.35% of the crossblock covariance, respectively. LV1 reflected a contrast between ongoing stimuli and PM cues, but especially emotional PM cues (i.e., pleasant and unpleasant) as can be seen in Figure 3A. Thus, such LV captured a pattern of ERPs reflecting the interplay between PM processes and emotion-related processes. LV1 represented a series of modulations in the time window between 250 and 900 ms. More specifically, emotional PM cues were characterized by a positive peak at about 400 ms, particularly pronounced over frontal regions, followed by a relative negative deflection especially over occipital sites (peaking at 460 ms) and a large sustained positivity mainly expressed over central and parietal sites (starting roughly at 500 ms), which might reflect the result of two overlapping deflections: the prospective positivity and the LPP. Even though these modulations were widespread over the scalp, they were more pronounced over central and parietal regions (Figure 3C).


Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

Cona G, Kliegel M, Bisiacchi PS - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Retrieval phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional PM cues from ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a frontal positivity and a parietal positivity, which was the result of the prospective positivity and the LPP. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased widespread positivity for pleasant pictures in both earlier and later time windows. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309118&req=5

Figure 3: Retrieval phase. (A) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV1, contrasting emotional PM cues from ongoing stimuli. The electrode saliences represented a frontal positivity and a parietal positivity, which was the result of the prospective positivity and the LPP. (B) Design scores and saliences at select electrodes for LV2, distinguishing pleasant pictures from neutral PM cues. The electrode saliences captured an increased widespread positivity for pleasant pictures in both earlier and later time windows. (C) The grand-averaged ERPs at midline electrodes for ongoing pictures (dotted lines) and PM cues (solid lines) as a function of the emotional valence.
Mentions: The third PLS analysis (retrieval phase) included the ERPs elicited by the PM cues and by the ongoing stimuli having the same emotional valence of the PM cues in that session. This analysis revealed two significant LVs (both ps < 0.001) that accounted for 71.46 and 20.35% of the crossblock covariance, respectively. LV1 reflected a contrast between ongoing stimuli and PM cues, but especially emotional PM cues (i.e., pleasant and unpleasant) as can be seen in Figure 3A. Thus, such LV captured a pattern of ERPs reflecting the interplay between PM processes and emotion-related processes. LV1 represented a series of modulations in the time window between 250 and 900 ms. More specifically, emotional PM cues were characterized by a positive peak at about 400 ms, particularly pronounced over frontal regions, followed by a relative negative deflection especially over occipital sites (peaking at 460 ms) and a large sustained positivity mainly expressed over central and parietal sites (starting roughly at 500 ms), which might reflect the result of two overlapping deflections: the prospective positivity and the LPP. Even though these modulations were widespread over the scalp, they were more pronounced over central and parietal regions (Figure 3C).

Bottom Line: So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance.ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes.Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padua Padua, Italy.

ABSTRACT
So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

No MeSH data available.