Limits...
Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance.

Zhang C, Vornam B, Volmer K, Prinz K, Kleemann F, Köhler L, Polle A, Finkeldey R - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services.An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high.The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University Shaanxi, China ; Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Büsgen-Institute, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen.

No MeSH data available.


Randomized block design of the poplar diversity. The numbers (1–8) indicate the different demes included in the plot: 1-G2, 2-G8, 3-USA, 4-CH, 5-G1, 6-S, 7-A, 8-PL (the abbreviations are shown in Table 1). The plots in green, orange, blue, and yellow represent one, two, four, and eight demes in the plot, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309117&req=5

Figure 1: Randomized block design of the poplar diversity. The numbers (1–8) indicate the different demes included in the plot: 1-G2, 2-G8, 3-USA, 4-CH, 5-G1, 6-S, 7-A, 8-PL (the abbreviations are shown in Table 1). The plots in green, orange, blue, and yellow represent one, two, four, and eight demes in the plot, respectively.

Mentions: Before the planting of the poplar seedlings the experimental site (110 × 170 m) was surrounded by a knotted-wire-netting-fence (game fence, height: 1.80 m). Inside the area, a second fence was installed with a height of 20 cm above-ground and reaching 70 cm below-ground to protect the plants from European Water Voles (Arvicola amphibious). Voles within the fenced area were decimated by traps (Topcat GmbH, L’Auberson VD, Switzerland) with permission of the lower nature conservation authority (administrative district Holzminden, Germany). Prior to the establishment of the poplar plants the biologically degradable herbicide Roundup (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO, USA) was applied, and the area was processed with a disk harrow. This is a typical treatment for plantation establishment and the herbicide dose was not toxic for arthropods (Safety data sheet, Monsanto Europe, version 5.0, 25.07.2011). The poplar seedlings were out-planted in a randomized block design with 20 blocks, each divided into six plots (Figure 1). In each plot, 25 poplar seedlings from up to eight different demes were planted at four levels: (1) each deme was planted solitary with three replications (24 plots), (2) two demes were planted in combination with each other (56 plots), (3) four demes were planted in random combinations (32 plots) and (4) all demes were planted in combination (eight plots). The total number of experimental trees was 3000, and the distance between the trees was 1.5 m. To avoid edge effects each block was surrounded by a row of additional trees (1080 plants in total) that was not taken into account for the measurements and analyses.


Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance.

Zhang C, Vornam B, Volmer K, Prinz K, Kleemann F, Köhler L, Polle A, Finkeldey R - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Randomized block design of the poplar diversity. The numbers (1–8) indicate the different demes included in the plot: 1-G2, 2-G8, 3-USA, 4-CH, 5-G1, 6-S, 7-A, 8-PL (the abbreviations are shown in Table 1). The plots in green, orange, blue, and yellow represent one, two, four, and eight demes in the plot, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4309117&req=5

Figure 1: Randomized block design of the poplar diversity. The numbers (1–8) indicate the different demes included in the plot: 1-G2, 2-G8, 3-USA, 4-CH, 5-G1, 6-S, 7-A, 8-PL (the abbreviations are shown in Table 1). The plots in green, orange, blue, and yellow represent one, two, four, and eight demes in the plot, respectively.
Mentions: Before the planting of the poplar seedlings the experimental site (110 × 170 m) was surrounded by a knotted-wire-netting-fence (game fence, height: 1.80 m). Inside the area, a second fence was installed with a height of 20 cm above-ground and reaching 70 cm below-ground to protect the plants from European Water Voles (Arvicola amphibious). Voles within the fenced area were decimated by traps (Topcat GmbH, L’Auberson VD, Switzerland) with permission of the lower nature conservation authority (administrative district Holzminden, Germany). Prior to the establishment of the poplar plants the biologically degradable herbicide Roundup (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO, USA) was applied, and the area was processed with a disk harrow. This is a typical treatment for plantation establishment and the herbicide dose was not toxic for arthropods (Safety data sheet, Monsanto Europe, version 5.0, 25.07.2011). The poplar seedlings were out-planted in a randomized block design with 20 blocks, each divided into six plots (Figure 1). In each plot, 25 poplar seedlings from up to eight different demes were planted at four levels: (1) each deme was planted solitary with three replications (24 plots), (2) two demes were planted in combination with each other (56 plots), (3) four demes were planted in random combinations (32 plots) and (4) all demes were planted in combination (eight plots). The total number of experimental trees was 3000, and the distance between the trees was 1.5 m. To avoid edge effects each block was surrounded by a row of additional trees (1080 plants in total) that was not taken into account for the measurements and analyses.

Bottom Line: Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services.An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high.The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University Shaanxi, China ; Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Büsgen-Institute, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen.

No MeSH data available.