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Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

Burke IT, Mosselmans JF, Shaw S, Peacock CL, Benning LG, Coker VS - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years.This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment.This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK i.t.burke@see.leeds.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Environmental processes can be harnessed to create novel functional nanomaterials. For example, the bacterium V. atypica is able to produce (a) biogenic cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots with changing particle sizes showing differing optical properties under UV light (inset transmission electron microscopy image of CdSe quantum dots) (adapted from [102]) and (b) environmental scanning electron microscopy image of biogenic selenium nanospheres also created by V. atypica and exposed to Hg showing a potential remediation strategy (adapted from [103]). Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sufurreducens, are able to create nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) and substitute different transition metals such as vanadium altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle as shown in the data taken at Diamond beamline I06 (c) at the V L2,3-edge, where both the XAS and XMCD of biogenic V–ferrite indicate that V(III) was incorporated into the biogenic spinel by the bacterial reduction of Fe(III) and V(V) creating novel nanoparticles (adapted from [104]).
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RSTA20130151F7: Environmental processes can be harnessed to create novel functional nanomaterials. For example, the bacterium V. atypica is able to produce (a) biogenic cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots with changing particle sizes showing differing optical properties under UV light (inset transmission electron microscopy image of CdSe quantum dots) (adapted from [102]) and (b) environmental scanning electron microscopy image of biogenic selenium nanospheres also created by V. atypica and exposed to Hg showing a potential remediation strategy (adapted from [103]). Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sufurreducens, are able to create nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) and substitute different transition metals such as vanadium altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle as shown in the data taken at Diamond beamline I06 (c) at the V L2,3-edge, where both the XAS and XMCD of biogenic V–ferrite indicate that V(III) was incorporated into the biogenic spinel by the bacterial reduction of Fe(III) and V(V) creating novel nanoparticles (adapted from [104]).

Mentions: Anaerobic bacterial reduction of metals and metalloids coupled to the oxidation of organic matter or hydrogen is well documented in the literature [98,99] and these powerful redox reactions can be channelled to produce useful materials. The bacterium Veillonella atypica can reduce aqueous selenate (Se4+) to selenide (Se2+), and the resulting selenide then used to form chalcogenide quantum dots such as ZnSe with optical and semiconducting properties [100,101]. Fellowes et al. [102] created a suite of CdSe quantum dots (2–4 nm) using selenide produced by V. atypica and stabilized the particle surface using glutathione (figure 7a,b). XAS analyses performed on I18 at Diamond suggested that the Se was structurally incorporated into the CdSe. These materials were shown to have increased stability compared with synthetic analogues. Veillonella atypica can also form nanospheres of selenium [105]. A novel application of these active nanoparticles was the ability of selenium to sequester volatile mercury [103]. Within museum collections mercuric chloride was previously used to preserve samples as it is an effective pesticide; however, over time the mercury evolves to Hg0 vapour; a health risk to staff. XANES data collected on B18 at Diamond were used to identify that remaining mercury in specimens was present as a mixture of HgCl2, cubic HgS and HgO. Bacterially produced selenium nanoparticles were shown to be efficient absorbents of the toxic mercury vapour and XANES indicated that the Hg was captured as HgSe [103].Figure 7.


Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

Burke IT, Mosselmans JF, Shaw S, Peacock CL, Benning LG, Coker VS - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Environmental processes can be harnessed to create novel functional nanomaterials. For example, the bacterium V. atypica is able to produce (a) biogenic cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots with changing particle sizes showing differing optical properties under UV light (inset transmission electron microscopy image of CdSe quantum dots) (adapted from [102]) and (b) environmental scanning electron microscopy image of biogenic selenium nanospheres also created by V. atypica and exposed to Hg showing a potential remediation strategy (adapted from [103]). Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sufurreducens, are able to create nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) and substitute different transition metals such as vanadium altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle as shown in the data taken at Diamond beamline I06 (c) at the V L2,3-edge, where both the XAS and XMCD of biogenic V–ferrite indicate that V(III) was incorporated into the biogenic spinel by the bacterial reduction of Fe(III) and V(V) creating novel nanoparticles (adapted from [104]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308981&req=5

RSTA20130151F7: Environmental processes can be harnessed to create novel functional nanomaterials. For example, the bacterium V. atypica is able to produce (a) biogenic cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots with changing particle sizes showing differing optical properties under UV light (inset transmission electron microscopy image of CdSe quantum dots) (adapted from [102]) and (b) environmental scanning electron microscopy image of biogenic selenium nanospheres also created by V. atypica and exposed to Hg showing a potential remediation strategy (adapted from [103]). Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sufurreducens, are able to create nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) and substitute different transition metals such as vanadium altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle as shown in the data taken at Diamond beamline I06 (c) at the V L2,3-edge, where both the XAS and XMCD of biogenic V–ferrite indicate that V(III) was incorporated into the biogenic spinel by the bacterial reduction of Fe(III) and V(V) creating novel nanoparticles (adapted from [104]).
Mentions: Anaerobic bacterial reduction of metals and metalloids coupled to the oxidation of organic matter or hydrogen is well documented in the literature [98,99] and these powerful redox reactions can be channelled to produce useful materials. The bacterium Veillonella atypica can reduce aqueous selenate (Se4+) to selenide (Se2+), and the resulting selenide then used to form chalcogenide quantum dots such as ZnSe with optical and semiconducting properties [100,101]. Fellowes et al. [102] created a suite of CdSe quantum dots (2–4 nm) using selenide produced by V. atypica and stabilized the particle surface using glutathione (figure 7a,b). XAS analyses performed on I18 at Diamond suggested that the Se was structurally incorporated into the CdSe. These materials were shown to have increased stability compared with synthetic analogues. Veillonella atypica can also form nanospheres of selenium [105]. A novel application of these active nanoparticles was the ability of selenium to sequester volatile mercury [103]. Within museum collections mercuric chloride was previously used to preserve samples as it is an effective pesticide; however, over time the mercury evolves to Hg0 vapour; a health risk to staff. XANES data collected on B18 at Diamond were used to identify that remaining mercury in specimens was present as a mixture of HgCl2, cubic HgS and HgO. Bacterially produced selenium nanoparticles were shown to be efficient absorbents of the toxic mercury vapour and XANES indicated that the Hg was captured as HgSe [103].Figure 7.

Bottom Line: Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years.This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment.This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK i.t.burke@see.leeds.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus