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Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

Burke IT, Mosselmans JF, Shaw S, Peacock CL, Benning LG, Coker VS - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years.This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment.This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK i.t.burke@see.leeds.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

No MeSH data available.


The use of depleted uranium (DU) in battlefiled munitions has led to much interest in the fate and behaviour of DU in the environment, especially with respect to its potential solubility and health effects. (a) DU penetrator rod used in battlefield munitions (adapted from [51]); (b) scanning electron microscopy image of uraniferous (uranium oxide) particle from dust/soil samples, showing primary morphology and (c) μEXAFS spectra for three U-oxide standards and three selected sample spectra from U-containing dust samples showing that the particles are a mixture of UO2 and UO3 (adapted from [50]).
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RSTA20130151F2: The use of depleted uranium (DU) in battlefiled munitions has led to much interest in the fate and behaviour of DU in the environment, especially with respect to its potential solubility and health effects. (a) DU penetrator rod used in battlefield munitions (adapted from [51]); (b) scanning electron microscopy image of uraniferous (uranium oxide) particle from dust/soil samples, showing primary morphology and (c) μEXAFS spectra for three U-oxide standards and three selected sample spectra from U-containing dust samples showing that the particles are a mixture of UO2 and UO3 (adapted from [50]).

Mentions: Depleted uranium (DU) metal is used for a variety of purposes, including kinetic energy penetrators, tank armour and radiation shielding. Environmental contamination by DU has been identified in a number of sites globally as a legacy of DU metal component manufacturing, and use of DU munitions. Key to predicting the long-term behaviour of uranium at these sites is characterizing the chemical form (speciation) of the uranium in the soil/sediment. μXAS using beamline I18 at Diamond was used [50] to study samples collected adjacent to a U metal processing plant (New York, USA). Uranium-rich microspheres (20–80 μm) were analysed by a combination of μXANES and μEXAFS (figure 2). Linear combination fitting of μEXAFS data showed that the particles consisted of uranium oxide, dominated by UO2 with variable amounts of U3O8. This indicated that the uranium within the particle was mostly U(IV) which is less mobile and less bioavailable than the U(VI) species, which are highly soluble under oxic conditions. This work highlights the importance of microfocus techniques for studying radionuclides in natural samples where the overall concentration of the radionuclide is low, and contaminant behaviour is controlled by a small number of highly enriched particles.Figure 2.


Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

Burke IT, Mosselmans JF, Shaw S, Peacock CL, Benning LG, Coker VS - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

The use of depleted uranium (DU) in battlefiled munitions has led to much interest in the fate and behaviour of DU in the environment, especially with respect to its potential solubility and health effects. (a) DU penetrator rod used in battlefield munitions (adapted from [51]); (b) scanning electron microscopy image of uraniferous (uranium oxide) particle from dust/soil samples, showing primary morphology and (c) μEXAFS spectra for three U-oxide standards and three selected sample spectra from U-containing dust samples showing that the particles are a mixture of UO2 and UO3 (adapted from [50]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308981&req=5

RSTA20130151F2: The use of depleted uranium (DU) in battlefiled munitions has led to much interest in the fate and behaviour of DU in the environment, especially with respect to its potential solubility and health effects. (a) DU penetrator rod used in battlefield munitions (adapted from [51]); (b) scanning electron microscopy image of uraniferous (uranium oxide) particle from dust/soil samples, showing primary morphology and (c) μEXAFS spectra for three U-oxide standards and three selected sample spectra from U-containing dust samples showing that the particles are a mixture of UO2 and UO3 (adapted from [50]).
Mentions: Depleted uranium (DU) metal is used for a variety of purposes, including kinetic energy penetrators, tank armour and radiation shielding. Environmental contamination by DU has been identified in a number of sites globally as a legacy of DU metal component manufacturing, and use of DU munitions. Key to predicting the long-term behaviour of uranium at these sites is characterizing the chemical form (speciation) of the uranium in the soil/sediment. μXAS using beamline I18 at Diamond was used [50] to study samples collected adjacent to a U metal processing plant (New York, USA). Uranium-rich microspheres (20–80 μm) were analysed by a combination of μXANES and μEXAFS (figure 2). Linear combination fitting of μEXAFS data showed that the particles consisted of uranium oxide, dominated by UO2 with variable amounts of U3O8. This indicated that the uranium within the particle was mostly U(IV) which is less mobile and less bioavailable than the U(VI) species, which are highly soluble under oxic conditions. This work highlights the importance of microfocus techniques for studying radionuclides in natural samples where the overall concentration of the radionuclide is low, and contaminant behaviour is controlled by a small number of highly enriched particles.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years.This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment.This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK i.t.burke@see.leeds.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

No MeSH data available.