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Effects of a dietary supplement on golf drive distance and functional indices of golf performance.

Ziegenfuss TN, Habowski SM, Lemieux R, Sandrock JE, Kedia AW, Kerksick CM, Lopez HL - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2015)

Bottom Line: No other significant group × time interactions were found.SD supplementation for 30 days significantly improved best drive distance more than placebo.Supplementation was well tolerated and did not result in any clinically significant changes in markers of health or adverse events/side effect profiles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Center for Applied Health Sciences, 4302 Allen Road, Ste 120, Stow, OH 44224 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited research exists examining the impact of nutrition on golfing performance. This study's purpose was to determine the impact of daily supplementation with an over-the-counter dietary supplement on golf performance.

Methods: Healthy men (30.3 ± 6.9 y, 183.1 ± 5.6 cm, 86.7 ± 11.9 kg), with a 5-15 handicap were assigned in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to ingest for 30 days either a placebo (PLA, n = 13) or a dietary supplement containing creatine monohydrate, coffea arabica fruit extract, calcium fructoborate and vitamin D (Strong Drive™, SD, n = 14). Subjects ingested two daily doses for the first two weeks and one daily dose for the remaining two weeks. Participants followed their normal dietary habits and did not change their physical activity patterns. Two identical testing sessions in a pre/post fashion were completed consisting of a fasting blood sample, anthropometric measurements, 1-RM bench press, upper body power and golf swing performance using their driver and 7-iron. Data were analyzed using two-way mixed factorial ANOVAs and ANCOVA when baseline differences were present. Statistical significance was established a priori at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: ANCOVA revealed significantly greater (post-test) best drive distance (p = 0.04) for SD (+5.0% [+13.6 yards], ES = 0.75) as well as a tendency (p = 0.07) for average drive distance to increase (+8.4% [+19.6 yards], ES = 0.65), while no such changes were found with PLA (-0.5% [-1.2 yards], ES = 0.04 and +1.3% [+2.8 yards], ES = 0.08, respectively). Both groups experienced significant increases in body mass and 1-RM bench press (p < 0.001). No other significant group × time interactions were found. For the SD group only, within-group analysis confirmed significant improvements in set 1 average (+8.9%, p = 0.001) and peak velocity (+6.8%, p < =0.01). No changes were noted for reported adverse events, pain inventories, quality of life or any measured blood parameter.

Conclusions: SD supplementation for 30 days significantly improved best drive distance more than placebo. Supplementation was well tolerated and did not result in any clinically significant changes in markers of health or adverse events/side effect profiles.

No MeSH data available.


Best distance using driver for placebo = PLA (black bars) and Strong Drive = SD (white bars). § = Significant group differences using ANCOVA (p = 0.04) with respective baseline scores as the covariate due to significant differences between groups at baseline.
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Fig2: Best distance using driver for placebo = PLA (black bars) and Strong Drive = SD (white bars). § = Significant group differences using ANCOVA (p = 0.04) with respective baseline scores as the covariate due to significant differences between groups at baseline.

Mentions: Golf performance data are shown in Table 3. Using 2×2 mixed factorial ANOVA, no significant (p > 0.05) group × time interaction effect was found for best 7-iron club speed, best 7-iron ball speed and best 7-iron distance. There was a significant difference at baseline (p < 0.05) in best driver distance, best driver club speed, and best driver ball speed, thus ANCOVA was used to compare post-test values for these variables. No between-group differences were noted for best driver club speed and best driver ball speed, but a significant difference was found for best driver distance (Table 3 and Figure 2) and there was a tendency for average driver distance to be different (PLA: 2.7 ± 25.2 vs. SD: 13.6 ± 24.5 yards, p = 0.07). In the SD group, a trend (delta: 13.6 ± 29.0 yards, p = 0.10, ES = 0.75) was identified for best drive distance. No within-group changes were seen in the PLA group for any of the golf performance parameters with the exception of a tendency for an increase in best 7-iron distance (+6.9 ± 13.2 yards, p = 0.08, ES = 0.31).Table 3


Effects of a dietary supplement on golf drive distance and functional indices of golf performance.

Ziegenfuss TN, Habowski SM, Lemieux R, Sandrock JE, Kedia AW, Kerksick CM, Lopez HL - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2015)

Best distance using driver for placebo = PLA (black bars) and Strong Drive = SD (white bars). § = Significant group differences using ANCOVA (p = 0.04) with respective baseline scores as the covariate due to significant differences between groups at baseline.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308854&req=5

Fig2: Best distance using driver for placebo = PLA (black bars) and Strong Drive = SD (white bars). § = Significant group differences using ANCOVA (p = 0.04) with respective baseline scores as the covariate due to significant differences between groups at baseline.
Mentions: Golf performance data are shown in Table 3. Using 2×2 mixed factorial ANOVA, no significant (p > 0.05) group × time interaction effect was found for best 7-iron club speed, best 7-iron ball speed and best 7-iron distance. There was a significant difference at baseline (p < 0.05) in best driver distance, best driver club speed, and best driver ball speed, thus ANCOVA was used to compare post-test values for these variables. No between-group differences were noted for best driver club speed and best driver ball speed, but a significant difference was found for best driver distance (Table 3 and Figure 2) and there was a tendency for average driver distance to be different (PLA: 2.7 ± 25.2 vs. SD: 13.6 ± 24.5 yards, p = 0.07). In the SD group, a trend (delta: 13.6 ± 29.0 yards, p = 0.10, ES = 0.75) was identified for best drive distance. No within-group changes were seen in the PLA group for any of the golf performance parameters with the exception of a tendency for an increase in best 7-iron distance (+6.9 ± 13.2 yards, p = 0.08, ES = 0.31).Table 3

Bottom Line: No other significant group × time interactions were found.SD supplementation for 30 days significantly improved best drive distance more than placebo.Supplementation was well tolerated and did not result in any clinically significant changes in markers of health or adverse events/side effect profiles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Center for Applied Health Sciences, 4302 Allen Road, Ste 120, Stow, OH 44224 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited research exists examining the impact of nutrition on golfing performance. This study's purpose was to determine the impact of daily supplementation with an over-the-counter dietary supplement on golf performance.

Methods: Healthy men (30.3 ± 6.9 y, 183.1 ± 5.6 cm, 86.7 ± 11.9 kg), with a 5-15 handicap were assigned in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to ingest for 30 days either a placebo (PLA, n = 13) or a dietary supplement containing creatine monohydrate, coffea arabica fruit extract, calcium fructoborate and vitamin D (Strong Drive™, SD, n = 14). Subjects ingested two daily doses for the first two weeks and one daily dose for the remaining two weeks. Participants followed their normal dietary habits and did not change their physical activity patterns. Two identical testing sessions in a pre/post fashion were completed consisting of a fasting blood sample, anthropometric measurements, 1-RM bench press, upper body power and golf swing performance using their driver and 7-iron. Data were analyzed using two-way mixed factorial ANOVAs and ANCOVA when baseline differences were present. Statistical significance was established a priori at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: ANCOVA revealed significantly greater (post-test) best drive distance (p = 0.04) for SD (+5.0% [+13.6 yards], ES = 0.75) as well as a tendency (p = 0.07) for average drive distance to increase (+8.4% [+19.6 yards], ES = 0.65), while no such changes were found with PLA (-0.5% [-1.2 yards], ES = 0.04 and +1.3% [+2.8 yards], ES = 0.08, respectively). Both groups experienced significant increases in body mass and 1-RM bench press (p < 0.001). No other significant group × time interactions were found. For the SD group only, within-group analysis confirmed significant improvements in set 1 average (+8.9%, p = 0.001) and peak velocity (+6.8%, p < =0.01). No changes were noted for reported adverse events, pain inventories, quality of life or any measured blood parameter.

Conclusions: SD supplementation for 30 days significantly improved best drive distance more than placebo. Supplementation was well tolerated and did not result in any clinically significant changes in markers of health or adverse events/side effect profiles.

No MeSH data available.