Kidney stone analysis: "Give me your stone, I will tell you who you are!".
Bottom Line: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease.Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone.Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.
Affiliation: Urology Department, Tenon University Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75970, Paris Cedex 20, France.
Introduction: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease. This could orientate the physician toward particular etiologies.
Material and methods: Chemical and physical methods are both used for analysis. Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone. Physical methods, in counterpart, are becoming more and more used in high-volume laboratories. The present manuscript will provide a review on analytic methods, and review all the information that should be included into an appropriate morpho-constitutional analysis.
Conclusion: This report can supply an excellent summarization of the stone morphology and give the opportunity to find specific metabolic disorders and different lithogenic process into the same stone. Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.
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Mentions: Morphological characteristics and the corresponding morphological types have been already described [9, 20]. In Table 1, the various types of stones are summarized, their corresponding main crystalline phase and the common causes associated with each stone subtype. About 98 % of urinary calculi are incorporated according to that classification. If a stone cannot be classified, two explanations should be considered: the chemical composition (e.g., dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, atazanavir, sulfadiazine…) or the cause is very uncommon . Because calculi are frequently made of several crystalline phases, it is not surprising to find a mixture of different subtypes related to the different crystalline phases. Among the principal associations, finding binary mixtures such as COM and COD or ternary mixtures including COM, COD and carbapatite are counting together for a quarter of cases in our experience (Fig. 6).Table 1