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Kidney stone analysis: "Give me your stone, I will tell you who you are!".

Cloutier J, Villa L, Traxer O, Daudon M - World J Urol (2014)

Bottom Line: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease.Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone.Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Urology Department, Tenon University Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75970, Paris Cedex 20, France.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease. This could orientate the physician toward particular etiologies.

Material and methods: Chemical and physical methods are both used for analysis. Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone. Physical methods, in counterpart, are becoming more and more used in high-volume laboratories. The present manuscript will provide a review on analytic methods, and review all the information that should be included into an appropriate morpho-constitutional analysis.

Conclusion: This report can supply an excellent summarization of the stone morphology and give the opportunity to find specific metabolic disorders and different lithogenic process into the same stone. Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Common stones made of calcium oxalate. Stone morphology is very different according to the crystalline phase: Calcium oxalate monohydrate corresponding to the stone subtype Ia (a surface; b section). Calcium oxalate dihydrate corresponding to the stone subtype IIa (c surface; d section)
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Fig5: Common stones made of calcium oxalate. Stone morphology is very different according to the crystalline phase: Calcium oxalate monohydrate corresponding to the stone subtype Ia (a surface; b section). Calcium oxalate dihydrate corresponding to the stone subtype IIa (c surface; d section)

Mentions: Physical methods provide information on crystalline phases of the same chemical species that may imply different lithogenic conditions: for example, whewellite (CaOx monohydrate, COM) and weddellite (CaOx dihydrate, COD) among CaOx stones; carbapatite, brushite, or whitlockite among CaPh stones. A similar composition, for example CaOx, may be the result of a variety of lithogenic processes, including diet imbalance, low diuresis, genetic or acquired diseases [9]. It is the same for crystalline phases: COM stones may correspond to hyperoxaluric states related to very different etiopathogenic conditions, such as primary hyperoxaluria, enteric hyperoxaluria, or idiopathic CaOx nephrolithiasis [16, 20]. In contrast, COD stones are clearly related to hypercalciuria in a very high proportion of cases [16, 20, 21]. The corresponding stones exhibit distinct morphology easily identified in both surface and section (Fig. 5). Finally, the initial nucleation process could be related to another mechanism (e.g., Randall’s plaque) than the factors responsible for the subsequent stone growth. All these considerations raise the importance that the stone analysis should provide information on the stone morphology, chemical composition and crystalline phases, as well as their location within the stone.Fig. 5


Kidney stone analysis: "Give me your stone, I will tell you who you are!".

Cloutier J, Villa L, Traxer O, Daudon M - World J Urol (2014)

Common stones made of calcium oxalate. Stone morphology is very different according to the crystalline phase: Calcium oxalate monohydrate corresponding to the stone subtype Ia (a surface; b section). Calcium oxalate dihydrate corresponding to the stone subtype IIa (c surface; d section)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308647&req=5

Fig5: Common stones made of calcium oxalate. Stone morphology is very different according to the crystalline phase: Calcium oxalate monohydrate corresponding to the stone subtype Ia (a surface; b section). Calcium oxalate dihydrate corresponding to the stone subtype IIa (c surface; d section)
Mentions: Physical methods provide information on crystalline phases of the same chemical species that may imply different lithogenic conditions: for example, whewellite (CaOx monohydrate, COM) and weddellite (CaOx dihydrate, COD) among CaOx stones; carbapatite, brushite, or whitlockite among CaPh stones. A similar composition, for example CaOx, may be the result of a variety of lithogenic processes, including diet imbalance, low diuresis, genetic or acquired diseases [9]. It is the same for crystalline phases: COM stones may correspond to hyperoxaluric states related to very different etiopathogenic conditions, such as primary hyperoxaluria, enteric hyperoxaluria, or idiopathic CaOx nephrolithiasis [16, 20]. In contrast, COD stones are clearly related to hypercalciuria in a very high proportion of cases [16, 20, 21]. The corresponding stones exhibit distinct morphology easily identified in both surface and section (Fig. 5). Finally, the initial nucleation process could be related to another mechanism (e.g., Randall’s plaque) than the factors responsible for the subsequent stone growth. All these considerations raise the importance that the stone analysis should provide information on the stone morphology, chemical composition and crystalline phases, as well as their location within the stone.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease.Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone.Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Urology Department, Tenon University Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75970, Paris Cedex 20, France.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stone analysis is an important part in the evaluation of patients having stone disease. This could orientate the physician toward particular etiologies.

Material and methods: Chemical and physical methods are both used for analysis. Unfortunately, chemical methods often are inadequate to analyze accurately urinary calculi and could fail to detect some elements into the stone. Physical methods, in counterpart, are becoming more and more used in high-volume laboratories. The present manuscript will provide a review on analytic methods, and review all the information that should be included into an appropriate morpho-constitutional analysis.

Conclusion: This report can supply an excellent summarization of the stone morphology and give the opportunity to find specific metabolic disorders and different lithogenic process into the same stone. Here, specific chemical types with their different crystalline phases are shown in connection with their different etiologies involved.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus