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Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

Okoh AI, Sibanda T, Nongogo V, Adefisoye M, Olayemi OO, Nontongana N - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population.Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant.These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape, 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

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Seasonal presumptive Vibrio counts for WWTP8-14
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Fig3: Seasonal presumptive Vibrio counts for WWTP8-14

Mentions: Presumptive Vibrio organisms were isolated in all seasons and at all sampling sites with the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive Vibrio was not detected in summer and spring. Gastrointestinal pathogenic microorganisms do not occur as a natural part of the normal intestinal microbiota (Gerritsen et al. 2011). Their presence in wastewater, therefore, could be dependent on the number of infected people in the population contributing to the wastewater flow. The presumptive Vibrio counts for all sampling sites were expressed in Log10 values and are presented in Figs. 2 and 3. The error bars on these figures represent the standard deviations since each of the readings is an average of the counts of 3 months constituting each season. Significantly higher presumptive Vibrio counts were obtained in samples from WWTP2 (P < 0.05), while samples from WWTP10 had significantly lower counts compared to the rest of the WWTPs. While other studies have reported a reduction in environmental Vibrio densities during winter as compared to other seasons (DePola et al. 2003; de Souza Costa Sobrinho et al. 2010), the trend was different in our case as statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in Vibrio densities obtained in different seasons.Fig. 2


Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

Okoh AI, Sibanda T, Nongogo V, Adefisoye M, Olayemi OO, Nontongana N - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2014)

Seasonal presumptive Vibrio counts for WWTP8-14
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308643&req=5

Fig3: Seasonal presumptive Vibrio counts for WWTP8-14
Mentions: Presumptive Vibrio organisms were isolated in all seasons and at all sampling sites with the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive Vibrio was not detected in summer and spring. Gastrointestinal pathogenic microorganisms do not occur as a natural part of the normal intestinal microbiota (Gerritsen et al. 2011). Their presence in wastewater, therefore, could be dependent on the number of infected people in the population contributing to the wastewater flow. The presumptive Vibrio counts for all sampling sites were expressed in Log10 values and are presented in Figs. 2 and 3. The error bars on these figures represent the standard deviations since each of the readings is an average of the counts of 3 months constituting each season. Significantly higher presumptive Vibrio counts were obtained in samples from WWTP2 (P < 0.05), while samples from WWTP10 had significantly lower counts compared to the rest of the WWTPs. While other studies have reported a reduction in environmental Vibrio densities during winter as compared to other seasons (DePola et al. 2003; de Souza Costa Sobrinho et al. 2010), the trend was different in our case as statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in Vibrio densities obtained in different seasons.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population.Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant.These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape, 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

Show MeSH