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Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

Okoh AI, Sibanda T, Nongogo V, Adefisoye M, Olayemi OO, Nontongana N - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population.Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant.These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape, 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

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A map showing the seven district municipalities of the ECP. Sampling sites were selected in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities (http://www.worldlicenseplates.com/world/AF_ZAEC.html)
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Fig1: A map showing the seven district municipalities of the ECP. Sampling sites were selected in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities (http://www.worldlicenseplates.com/world/AF_ZAEC.html)

Mentions: Fourteen (14) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were selected in Amathole and Chris Hani district municipalities of the ECP in South Africa (Fig. 1). The choice of WWTP was influenced by the need to ensure that plants were not located more than 3-h drive from the University of Fort Hare in Alice, such that samples could be taken to the laboratory for analysis within 6 h of collection. The ECP borders the provinces of the Western Cape, Northern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal, as well as Lesotho in the north. The province is mostly rural with a high percentage of people living in poverty (67.4 %) and a very low Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.52 (BLACKSASH 2010; ECSECC 2011). It is the second largest province in South Africa and mainly comprised of rural settlements with little or no adequate sanitary facilities, with about 36 % of the population directly reliant on surface water sources for domestic use (ECSECC 2011). The ECP is divided into seven district municipalities, namely, Alfred Nzo, Amathole, Chris Hani, Joe Gqabi, O.R. Tambo, Cacadu and the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. The Amathole District Municipality includes the Buffalo City Municipality. Due to the confidential nature of this work, the sampling sites were designated as WWTP1 to WWTP14, and geographical coordinates could equally not be given. All selected WWTPs discharge their treated effluents directly into rivers. Samples were collected with permission from the Amathole and Chris Hani district municipalities.Fig. 1


Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

Okoh AI, Sibanda T, Nongogo V, Adefisoye M, Olayemi OO, Nontongana N - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2014)

A map showing the seven district municipalities of the ECP. Sampling sites were selected in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities (http://www.worldlicenseplates.com/world/AF_ZAEC.html)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308643&req=5

Fig1: A map showing the seven district municipalities of the ECP. Sampling sites were selected in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities (http://www.worldlicenseplates.com/world/AF_ZAEC.html)
Mentions: Fourteen (14) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were selected in Amathole and Chris Hani district municipalities of the ECP in South Africa (Fig. 1). The choice of WWTP was influenced by the need to ensure that plants were not located more than 3-h drive from the University of Fort Hare in Alice, such that samples could be taken to the laboratory for analysis within 6 h of collection. The ECP borders the provinces of the Western Cape, Northern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal, as well as Lesotho in the north. The province is mostly rural with a high percentage of people living in poverty (67.4 %) and a very low Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.52 (BLACKSASH 2010; ECSECC 2011). It is the second largest province in South Africa and mainly comprised of rural settlements with little or no adequate sanitary facilities, with about 36 % of the population directly reliant on surface water sources for domestic use (ECSECC 2011). The ECP is divided into seven district municipalities, namely, Alfred Nzo, Amathole, Chris Hani, Joe Gqabi, O.R. Tambo, Cacadu and the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. The Amathole District Municipality includes the Buffalo City Municipality. Due to the confidential nature of this work, the sampling sites were designated as WWTP1 to WWTP14, and geographical coordinates could equally not be given. All selected WWTPs discharge their treated effluents directly into rivers. Samples were collected with permission from the Amathole and Chris Hani district municipalities.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population.Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant.These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape, 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.

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