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Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

Håkansson Å, Tormo-Badia N, Baridi A, Xu J, Molin G, Hagslätt ML, Karlsson C, Jeppsson B, Cilio CM, Ahrné S - Clin. Exp. Med. (2014)

Bottom Line: In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR.Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns.The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Hygiene, Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Asa.hakansson@food.lth.se.

ABSTRACT
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

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Statistical differences of percentage gated cells from Peyer′s patches. P values between the NC group and the DSS group are mentioned in the graph. Outliers are shown as circle and extreme values are shown as asterisk
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Fig2: Statistical differences of percentage gated cells from Peyer′s patches. P values between the NC group and the DSS group are mentioned in the graph. Outliers are shown as circle and extreme values are shown as asterisk

Mentions: Feed intake, body weight change, caecal weight, colon length and weight, spleen weight, DAI scores, MPO activity, cytokines/chemokines and qPCR results (Fig. 6; Tables 2, 4) were presented as medians with 25 and 75 percentiles. The statistics were conducted in SigmaStat® version 3.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA). The differences between experimental groups were assessed by a Mann–Whitney rank sum test. The correlation between expectations of benefit was ascertained using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Calculation of the incidence of Enterobacteriaceae growth and the incidence of T-RFs were conducted in QuickStat version 2.6 and were evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test. To assess the difference in percent gated cells between DSS and NC, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. In Figs. 2, 3 and 4, outliers are shown as ° and extreme values are shown as *. The statistical tests were performed in SPSS 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P values below 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Table 2


Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

Håkansson Å, Tormo-Badia N, Baridi A, Xu J, Molin G, Hagslätt ML, Karlsson C, Jeppsson B, Cilio CM, Ahrné S - Clin. Exp. Med. (2014)

Statistical differences of percentage gated cells from Peyer′s patches. P values between the NC group and the DSS group are mentioned in the graph. Outliers are shown as circle and extreme values are shown as asterisk
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308640&req=5

Fig2: Statistical differences of percentage gated cells from Peyer′s patches. P values between the NC group and the DSS group are mentioned in the graph. Outliers are shown as circle and extreme values are shown as asterisk
Mentions: Feed intake, body weight change, caecal weight, colon length and weight, spleen weight, DAI scores, MPO activity, cytokines/chemokines and qPCR results (Fig. 6; Tables 2, 4) were presented as medians with 25 and 75 percentiles. The statistics were conducted in SigmaStat® version 3.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA). The differences between experimental groups were assessed by a Mann–Whitney rank sum test. The correlation between expectations of benefit was ascertained using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Calculation of the incidence of Enterobacteriaceae growth and the incidence of T-RFs were conducted in QuickStat version 2.6 and were evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test. To assess the difference in percent gated cells between DSS and NC, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. In Figs. 2, 3 and 4, outliers are shown as ° and extreme values are shown as *. The statistical tests were performed in SPSS 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P values below 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Table 2

Bottom Line: In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR.Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns.The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Hygiene, Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Asa.hakansson@food.lth.se.

ABSTRACT
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus