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Exosomes in mesenchymal stem cells, a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases?

Huang L, Ma W, Ma Y, Feng D, Chen H, Cai B - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Notably, recent studies uncovered that MSCs were able to secret cholesterol-rich, phospholipid exosomes which were enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs).The released exosomes from MSCs acted on hearts and vessels, and then exerted anti-apoptosis, cardiac regeneration, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory effects, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling, which are considered as novel molecular mechanisms of therapeutic potential of MSCs transplantation.Here we summarized recent advances about the role of exosomes in MSCs therapy for CVDs, and discussed exosomes as a novel approach in the treatment of CVDs in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University (the State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China), Harbin 150081, China.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still a major cause of people deaths worldwide, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation holds great promise due to its capacity to differentiate into cardiovascular cells and secrete protective cytokines, which presents an important mechanism of MSCs therapy for CVDs. Although the capability of MSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CMCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been well recognized in massive previous experiments both in vitro and in vivo, low survival rate of transplanted MSCs in recipient hearts suggests that therapeutic effects of MSCs transplantation might be also correlated with other underlying mechanisms. Notably, recent studies uncovered that MSCs were able to secret cholesterol-rich, phospholipid exosomes which were enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs). The released exosomes from MSCs acted on hearts and vessels, and then exerted anti-apoptosis, cardiac regeneration, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory effects, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling, which are considered as novel molecular mechanisms of therapeutic potential of MSCs transplantation. Here we summarized recent advances about the role of exosomes in MSCs therapy for CVDs, and discussed exosomes as a novel approach in the treatment of CVDs in the future.

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Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for CVDs. MSCs can differentiate into CMCs, ECs and VSMCs to replace the loss of cardiovascular cells. Besides, MSCs also secreted paracrine factors and exosomes to target heart and vasculature to exert anti-apoptosis, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory reactions, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling effects.
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Figure 1: Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for CVDs. MSCs can differentiate into CMCs, ECs and VSMCs to replace the loss of cardiovascular cells. Besides, MSCs also secreted paracrine factors and exosomes to target heart and vasculature to exert anti-apoptosis, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory reactions, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling effects.

Mentions: Increasing evidence demonstrated that MSCs also can secrete functional paracrine factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 and basic fibroblast growth factor to produce various protective effects such as promoting vascular regeneration 22, supporting hematopoiesis 23, repairing injured kidney 24, facilitating myocardial repair 25 and ameliorating cardiac remodeling 26. Interestingly, recent study revealed that transplanted MSCs may secret abundant particles documented as exosomes, which not only may reduce tissue injury but also enhance tissue repair 27. Exosomes are cholesterol-rich, phospholipid vesicles enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs) which have been well recognized to regulate gene expression in a post-transcriptional manner and play a prominent role in various pathological and physiological processes 28-29 (Fig. 1). In the light of protective influences of exosomes on cardiovascular system, it is proposed that exosomes secreted by MSCs will be presented as an ideal therapeutic target for CVDs in the near future.


Exosomes in mesenchymal stem cells, a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases?

Huang L, Ma W, Ma Y, Feng D, Chen H, Cai B - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for CVDs. MSCs can differentiate into CMCs, ECs and VSMCs to replace the loss of cardiovascular cells. Besides, MSCs also secreted paracrine factors and exosomes to target heart and vasculature to exert anti-apoptosis, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory reactions, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling effects.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4308409&req=5

Figure 1: Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for CVDs. MSCs can differentiate into CMCs, ECs and VSMCs to replace the loss of cardiovascular cells. Besides, MSCs also secreted paracrine factors and exosomes to target heart and vasculature to exert anti-apoptosis, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory reactions, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling effects.
Mentions: Increasing evidence demonstrated that MSCs also can secrete functional paracrine factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 and basic fibroblast growth factor to produce various protective effects such as promoting vascular regeneration 22, supporting hematopoiesis 23, repairing injured kidney 24, facilitating myocardial repair 25 and ameliorating cardiac remodeling 26. Interestingly, recent study revealed that transplanted MSCs may secret abundant particles documented as exosomes, which not only may reduce tissue injury but also enhance tissue repair 27. Exosomes are cholesterol-rich, phospholipid vesicles enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs) which have been well recognized to regulate gene expression in a post-transcriptional manner and play a prominent role in various pathological and physiological processes 28-29 (Fig. 1). In the light of protective influences of exosomes on cardiovascular system, it is proposed that exosomes secreted by MSCs will be presented as an ideal therapeutic target for CVDs in the near future.

Bottom Line: Notably, recent studies uncovered that MSCs were able to secret cholesterol-rich, phospholipid exosomes which were enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs).The released exosomes from MSCs acted on hearts and vessels, and then exerted anti-apoptosis, cardiac regeneration, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory effects, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling, which are considered as novel molecular mechanisms of therapeutic potential of MSCs transplantation.Here we summarized recent advances about the role of exosomes in MSCs therapy for CVDs, and discussed exosomes as a novel approach in the treatment of CVDs in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University (the State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China), Harbin 150081, China.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still a major cause of people deaths worldwide, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation holds great promise due to its capacity to differentiate into cardiovascular cells and secrete protective cytokines, which presents an important mechanism of MSCs therapy for CVDs. Although the capability of MSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CMCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been well recognized in massive previous experiments both in vitro and in vivo, low survival rate of transplanted MSCs in recipient hearts suggests that therapeutic effects of MSCs transplantation might be also correlated with other underlying mechanisms. Notably, recent studies uncovered that MSCs were able to secret cholesterol-rich, phospholipid exosomes which were enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs). The released exosomes from MSCs acted on hearts and vessels, and then exerted anti-apoptosis, cardiac regeneration, anti-cardiac remodeling, anti-inflammatory effects, neovascularization and anti-vascular remodeling, which are considered as novel molecular mechanisms of therapeutic potential of MSCs transplantation. Here we summarized recent advances about the role of exosomes in MSCs therapy for CVDs, and discussed exosomes as a novel approach in the treatment of CVDs in the future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus