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Pallidal gap junctions-triggers of synchrony in Parkinson's disease?

Schwab BC, Heida T, Zhao Y, van Gils SA, van Wezel RJ - Mov. Disord. (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found that the number of connexin-36 spots in PD tissues increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe, and 109% in the GPi compared with controls.In conclusion, connexin-36 expression in the human GPe and GPi suggests that gap junctional coupling exists within these nuclei.Therefore, we propose that gap junctions act as a powerful modulator of synchrony in the basal ganglia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Analysis, MIRA Institute of Technical Medicine and Biomedical Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; Biomedical Signals and Systems, MIRA Institute of Technical Medicine and Biomedical Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

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Average expression of Cx36: (a) number of spots per mm2; (b) total area of the spots as a fraction of the total image. Cx36 spots are significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all three nuclei. The increase in cumulative area of detected Cx36 spots is significant only in putamen and GPi. The standard errors of the mean are presented as thin bars. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 (two sample t-test).
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fig03: Average expression of Cx36: (a) number of spots per mm2; (b) total area of the spots as a fraction of the total image. Cx36 spots are significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all three nuclei. The increase in cumulative area of detected Cx36 spots is significant only in putamen and GPi. The standard errors of the mean are presented as thin bars. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 (two sample t-test).

Mentions: The STN tissues from neither PD patients nor control subjects showed significant levels of Cx36 (data not shown) and were thus excluded from further analysis. However, we found a clear punctuate pattern of Cx36 labeling in the putamen, GPe, and GPi of all subjects (Fig. 2), which was absent in a negative control without the primary antibody (data not shown). Table1 summarizes the clinical background of all subjects and the results of the Cx36 quantification. An average of 18, but at least 12 images per tissue group could be included for image analysis. The GJC in the putamen is well described and thought to be increased after dopamine depletion.36,37 We therefore used Cx36 expression in the putamen as a reference for numerous GJCs. Control subjects showed the most Cx36 expression in the putamen; less Cx36 was found in their GPe and GPi. Compared with controls, the number of Cx36 spots in PD patients increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe and 109% in the GPi (Fig. 3A). Furthermore, the cumulative area of the Cx36 spots increased significantly in the putamen and GPi of PD patients, but no significant increase was detected in the GPe (Fig. 3B).


Pallidal gap junctions-triggers of synchrony in Parkinson's disease?

Schwab BC, Heida T, Zhao Y, van Gils SA, van Wezel RJ - Mov. Disord. (2014)

Average expression of Cx36: (a) number of spots per mm2; (b) total area of the spots as a fraction of the total image. Cx36 spots are significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all three nuclei. The increase in cumulative area of detected Cx36 spots is significant only in putamen and GPi. The standard errors of the mean are presented as thin bars. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 (two sample t-test).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307646&req=5

fig03: Average expression of Cx36: (a) number of spots per mm2; (b) total area of the spots as a fraction of the total image. Cx36 spots are significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all three nuclei. The increase in cumulative area of detected Cx36 spots is significant only in putamen and GPi. The standard errors of the mean are presented as thin bars. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 (two sample t-test).
Mentions: The STN tissues from neither PD patients nor control subjects showed significant levels of Cx36 (data not shown) and were thus excluded from further analysis. However, we found a clear punctuate pattern of Cx36 labeling in the putamen, GPe, and GPi of all subjects (Fig. 2), which was absent in a negative control without the primary antibody (data not shown). Table1 summarizes the clinical background of all subjects and the results of the Cx36 quantification. An average of 18, but at least 12 images per tissue group could be included for image analysis. The GJC in the putamen is well described and thought to be increased after dopamine depletion.36,37 We therefore used Cx36 expression in the putamen as a reference for numerous GJCs. Control subjects showed the most Cx36 expression in the putamen; less Cx36 was found in their GPe and GPi. Compared with controls, the number of Cx36 spots in PD patients increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe and 109% in the GPi (Fig. 3A). Furthermore, the cumulative area of the Cx36 spots increased significantly in the putamen and GPi of PD patients, but no significant increase was detected in the GPe (Fig. 3B).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found that the number of connexin-36 spots in PD tissues increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe, and 109% in the GPi compared with controls.In conclusion, connexin-36 expression in the human GPe and GPi suggests that gap junctional coupling exists within these nuclei.Therefore, we propose that gap junctions act as a powerful modulator of synchrony in the basal ganglia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Analysis, MIRA Institute of Technical Medicine and Biomedical Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; Biomedical Signals and Systems, MIRA Institute of Technical Medicine and Biomedical Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus