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Running exercise alleviates pain and promotes cell proliferation in a rat model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

Luan S, Wan Q, Luo H, Li X, Ke S, Lin C, Wu Y, Wu S, Ma C - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder.The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls).Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China. luanshuo126@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

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Running exercise significantly attenuated the bilateral hindpaw mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). The intradiscal CFA injection induced significant decreases in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the left (A) and right (B) hindpaws in response to von Frey filaments (p ˂ 0.01), however, no significant bilateral mechanical allodynia were observed in sham-operation groups (the sham exercise and the sham spontaneous recovery) compared to the baseline. For the CFA groups, the bilateral mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (p ˂ 0.05) and days 42, 56 and 70 (p ˂ 0.01). The data are expressed as the mean ± SDs, n = 8 in each CFA groups, n = 5 in each sham-operation groups. Independent-samples t tests were used to examine the differences between the CFA running exercise subgroups vs. the CFA spontaneous recovery subgroups, and the sham exercise subgroups vs. the sham spontaneous recovery subgroups at the specific time points. We also used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the within-group differences, and subsequent post-hoc tests were used to evaluate the differences between the specific time points and the baseline level in each group. *p ˂ 0.05, **p ˂ 0.01 compared to baseline; #p ˂ 0.05, ##p ˂ 0.01 CFA exercise group compared to the CFA spontaneous recovery group at the corresponding time points.
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ijms-16-02130-f001: Running exercise significantly attenuated the bilateral hindpaw mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). The intradiscal CFA injection induced significant decreases in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the left (A) and right (B) hindpaws in response to von Frey filaments (p ˂ 0.01), however, no significant bilateral mechanical allodynia were observed in sham-operation groups (the sham exercise and the sham spontaneous recovery) compared to the baseline. For the CFA groups, the bilateral mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (p ˂ 0.05) and days 42, 56 and 70 (p ˂ 0.01). The data are expressed as the mean ± SDs, n = 8 in each CFA groups, n = 5 in each sham-operation groups. Independent-samples t tests were used to examine the differences between the CFA running exercise subgroups vs. the CFA spontaneous recovery subgroups, and the sham exercise subgroups vs. the sham spontaneous recovery subgroups at the specific time points. We also used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the within-group differences, and subsequent post-hoc tests were used to evaluate the differences between the specific time points and the baseline level in each group. *p ˂ 0.05, **p ˂ 0.01 compared to baseline; #p ˂ 0.05, ##p ˂ 0.01 CFA exercise group compared to the CFA spontaneous recovery group at the corresponding time points.

Mentions: Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were determined based on the bilateral hindpaw withdrawal responses to von Frey hair stimulation according to the up-down method described by Dixon [16]. For the CFA groups, the decreased withdrawal thresholds of the bilateral hindpaw peaked at day 3 and were maintained until the end of experiment (day 70 of the CFA spontaneous recovery group). However, no significant changes of withdrawal thresholds were observed in both sham groups (the sham exercise group and the sham spontaneous recovery group) throughout the experiment. These results suggested that the intradiscal CFA injection resulted in mechanical allodynia (p ˂ 0.01). Importantly, for the CFA groups, running exercise significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia from day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (p ˂ 0.05) (Figure 1). The left paw withdrawal thresholds of CFA exercise group were significantly increased compared to those of CFA spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (10.6 ± 2.14 vs. 5.82 ± 1.72 g, p < 0.05), day 42 (14.65 ± 2.19 vs. 7.20 ± 1.92 g, p < 0.01), day 56 (16.19 ± 1.45 vs. 8.14 ± 1.31 g, p < 0.01) and day 70 (17.14 ± 1.24 vs. 8.60 ± 1.56 g, p < 0.01; Figure 1A). The right paw withdrawal thresholds exhibited a pattern similar to those of the left side (Figure 1B). These data suggest that the continuous running exercise helped to attenuate the allodynia induced by CFA intradiscal injection.


Running exercise alleviates pain and promotes cell proliferation in a rat model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

Luan S, Wan Q, Luo H, Li X, Ke S, Lin C, Wu Y, Wu S, Ma C - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Running exercise significantly attenuated the bilateral hindpaw mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). The intradiscal CFA injection induced significant decreases in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the left (A) and right (B) hindpaws in response to von Frey filaments (p ˂ 0.01), however, no significant bilateral mechanical allodynia were observed in sham-operation groups (the sham exercise and the sham spontaneous recovery) compared to the baseline. For the CFA groups, the bilateral mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (p ˂ 0.05) and days 42, 56 and 70 (p ˂ 0.01). The data are expressed as the mean ± SDs, n = 8 in each CFA groups, n = 5 in each sham-operation groups. Independent-samples t tests were used to examine the differences between the CFA running exercise subgroups vs. the CFA spontaneous recovery subgroups, and the sham exercise subgroups vs. the sham spontaneous recovery subgroups at the specific time points. We also used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the within-group differences, and subsequent post-hoc tests were used to evaluate the differences between the specific time points and the baseline level in each group. *p ˂ 0.05, **p ˂ 0.01 compared to baseline; #p ˂ 0.05, ##p ˂ 0.01 CFA exercise group compared to the CFA spontaneous recovery group at the corresponding time points.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307353&req=5

ijms-16-02130-f001: Running exercise significantly attenuated the bilateral hindpaw mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). The intradiscal CFA injection induced significant decreases in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the left (A) and right (B) hindpaws in response to von Frey filaments (p ˂ 0.01), however, no significant bilateral mechanical allodynia were observed in sham-operation groups (the sham exercise and the sham spontaneous recovery) compared to the baseline. For the CFA groups, the bilateral mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (p ˂ 0.05) and days 42, 56 and 70 (p ˂ 0.01). The data are expressed as the mean ± SDs, n = 8 in each CFA groups, n = 5 in each sham-operation groups. Independent-samples t tests were used to examine the differences between the CFA running exercise subgroups vs. the CFA spontaneous recovery subgroups, and the sham exercise subgroups vs. the sham spontaneous recovery subgroups at the specific time points. We also used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the within-group differences, and subsequent post-hoc tests were used to evaluate the differences between the specific time points and the baseline level in each group. *p ˂ 0.05, **p ˂ 0.01 compared to baseline; #p ˂ 0.05, ##p ˂ 0.01 CFA exercise group compared to the CFA spontaneous recovery group at the corresponding time points.
Mentions: Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were determined based on the bilateral hindpaw withdrawal responses to von Frey hair stimulation according to the up-down method described by Dixon [16]. For the CFA groups, the decreased withdrawal thresholds of the bilateral hindpaw peaked at day 3 and were maintained until the end of experiment (day 70 of the CFA spontaneous recovery group). However, no significant changes of withdrawal thresholds were observed in both sham groups (the sham exercise group and the sham spontaneous recovery group) throughout the experiment. These results suggested that the intradiscal CFA injection resulted in mechanical allodynia (p ˂ 0.01). Importantly, for the CFA groups, running exercise significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia from day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (p ˂ 0.05) (Figure 1). The left paw withdrawal thresholds of CFA exercise group were significantly increased compared to those of CFA spontaneous recovery group on day 28 (10.6 ± 2.14 vs. 5.82 ± 1.72 g, p < 0.05), day 42 (14.65 ± 2.19 vs. 7.20 ± 1.92 g, p < 0.01), day 56 (16.19 ± 1.45 vs. 8.14 ± 1.31 g, p < 0.01) and day 70 (17.14 ± 1.24 vs. 8.60 ± 1.56 g, p < 0.01; Figure 1A). The right paw withdrawal thresholds exhibited a pattern similar to those of the left side (Figure 1B). These data suggest that the continuous running exercise helped to attenuate the allodynia induced by CFA intradiscal injection.

Bottom Line: Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder.The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls).Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China. luanshuo126@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus