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Antimicrobial polymers with metal nanoparticles.

Palza H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives.Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc.The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago 8320000, Chile. hpalza@ing.uchile.cl.

ABSTRACT
Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

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Two main routes producing antimicrobial polymer/metal nanocomposites: (a) Polymer as reaction mediun for in-situ synthesis of nanoparticles; and (b) Polymer as a dispersion mediun of pre-synthesized nanoparticles.
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ijms-16-02099-f003: Two main routes producing antimicrobial polymer/metal nanocomposites: (a) Polymer as reaction mediun for in-situ synthesis of nanoparticles; and (b) Polymer as a dispersion mediun of pre-synthesized nanoparticles.

Mentions: Two general approaches can be distinguished for the preparation of polymer/metal nanocomposites depending on where the nanoparticles are synthesized (Figure 3): (1) in situ by using the polymer matrix as the reaction medium; and (2) ex situ, meaning that the particle is synthesized before their incorporation into the polymer and in this way the matrix is just the dispersion medium. The former approach is mostly used for polymer hydrogel nanocomposites where the presence in the macromolecules of both several functional groups and a water-rich medium improves the metal stabilization and dispersion. The second approach is currently used in thermoplastic composites where the high viscoelastic matrix at the melt state improves the dispersion of the nanoparticles.


Antimicrobial polymers with metal nanoparticles.

Palza H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Two main routes producing antimicrobial polymer/metal nanocomposites: (a) Polymer as reaction mediun for in-situ synthesis of nanoparticles; and (b) Polymer as a dispersion mediun of pre-synthesized nanoparticles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307351&req=5

ijms-16-02099-f003: Two main routes producing antimicrobial polymer/metal nanocomposites: (a) Polymer as reaction mediun for in-situ synthesis of nanoparticles; and (b) Polymer as a dispersion mediun of pre-synthesized nanoparticles.
Mentions: Two general approaches can be distinguished for the preparation of polymer/metal nanocomposites depending on where the nanoparticles are synthesized (Figure 3): (1) in situ by using the polymer matrix as the reaction medium; and (2) ex situ, meaning that the particle is synthesized before their incorporation into the polymer and in this way the matrix is just the dispersion medium. The former approach is mostly used for polymer hydrogel nanocomposites where the presence in the macromolecules of both several functional groups and a water-rich medium improves the metal stabilization and dispersion. The second approach is currently used in thermoplastic composites where the high viscoelastic matrix at the melt state improves the dispersion of the nanoparticles.

Bottom Line: Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives.Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc.The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago 8320000, Chile. hpalza@ing.uchile.cl.

ABSTRACT
Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus