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Accelerating in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular bypass grafts.

Goh ET, Wong E, Farhatnia Y, Tan A, Seifalian AM - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes.Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years.To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, Research Department of Nanotechnology, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK. ee.goh.12@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering.

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Shows the different functions of endothelium.
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ijms-16-00597-f001: Shows the different functions of endothelium.

Mentions: If we look at the natural lining of blood vessels, the endothelium prevents thrombosis and IH through various mechanisms [6]. These include the action of molecules like thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and through the release of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). The endothelium also plays a strong role in controlling diameter of blood vessels via NO-induced pathways. The endothelium also regulates inflammation and thrombosis, both factors leading to IH [7]. As such, due to the remarkable functionality of the endothelium (Figure 1), research in recent years has been directed at two approaches: mimicking the characteristics of the endothelium on the surface of grafts and inducing the endothelialisation of the graft surface itself.


Accelerating in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular bypass grafts.

Goh ET, Wong E, Farhatnia Y, Tan A, Seifalian AM - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Shows the different functions of endothelium.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307264&req=5

ijms-16-00597-f001: Shows the different functions of endothelium.
Mentions: If we look at the natural lining of blood vessels, the endothelium prevents thrombosis and IH through various mechanisms [6]. These include the action of molecules like thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and through the release of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). The endothelium also plays a strong role in controlling diameter of blood vessels via NO-induced pathways. The endothelium also regulates inflammation and thrombosis, both factors leading to IH [7]. As such, due to the remarkable functionality of the endothelium (Figure 1), research in recent years has been directed at two approaches: mimicking the characteristics of the endothelium on the surface of grafts and inducing the endothelialisation of the graft surface itself.

Bottom Line: In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes.Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years.To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, Research Department of Nanotechnology, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK. ee.goh.12@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus