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Polyester-based (bio)degradable polymers as environmentally friendly materials for sustainable development.

Rydz J, Sikorska W, Kyulavska M, Christova D - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers.Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined.Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Polymers, Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., Bl. 103A, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. jrydz@polymer.bas.bg.

ABSTRACT
This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

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Establishment of hydrogen bonds between Nylon-56 molecular chains, (a) scheme of the unfavourable hydrogen-bond geometry between odd diamide units of Nylon-56 molecular chains with an all trans conformation and (b) scheme of the establishment of hydrogen bonds along two directions when consecutive amide planes of a molecular chain slightly rotate in opposite directions from the plane defined by the methylene carbon atoms (nitrogen, blue; oxygen, red; carbon, gray; hydrogen, brown), originally published in [180].
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ijms-16-00564-f008: Establishment of hydrogen bonds between Nylon-56 molecular chains, (a) scheme of the unfavourable hydrogen-bond geometry between odd diamide units of Nylon-56 molecular chains with an all trans conformation and (b) scheme of the establishment of hydrogen bonds along two directions when consecutive amide planes of a molecular chain slightly rotate in opposite directions from the plane defined by the methylene carbon atoms (nitrogen, blue; oxygen, red; carbon, gray; hydrogen, brown), originally published in [180].

Mentions: Biodegradation of synthetic polyamides is generally known to be poor, although its chemical structure (presence of amide bonds in the main chain) resembles those of natural proteins and synthetic polypeptides [9,176,177]. The high resistance to degradation of synthetic polyamides is caused mainly by the high symmetry of their molecular structures and strong intermolecular cohesive force caused by hydrogen bonds between molecular chains, which results in highly crystalline morphology (Figure 8) [178,179,180]. However, several papers and reviews report on the degradation of oligomers and higher molar mass polyamides by different microorganisms and enzymes [178,181]. Nylon-66 and Nylon-6 are significantly degraded by enzymes from white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta [182,183,184]. Biodegradation of Nylon-6 oligomers is also observed with Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium [178]. Andreoni et al. [185] described three mixed cultures of aerobic bacteria able to grow on 6-aminocaproic acid polyamides of low molar mass (up to 6800 g/mol), but biodegradability of polyamides of molar mass higher than 11,000 g/mol was not reported. The extent of the bacterial growth was found to dependent on the amount of cyclic and linear oligomers present in the polymeric matrix.


Polyester-based (bio)degradable polymers as environmentally friendly materials for sustainable development.

Rydz J, Sikorska W, Kyulavska M, Christova D - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Establishment of hydrogen bonds between Nylon-56 molecular chains, (a) scheme of the unfavourable hydrogen-bond geometry between odd diamide units of Nylon-56 molecular chains with an all trans conformation and (b) scheme of the establishment of hydrogen bonds along two directions when consecutive amide planes of a molecular chain slightly rotate in opposite directions from the plane defined by the methylene carbon atoms (nitrogen, blue; oxygen, red; carbon, gray; hydrogen, brown), originally published in [180].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307263&req=5

ijms-16-00564-f008: Establishment of hydrogen bonds between Nylon-56 molecular chains, (a) scheme of the unfavourable hydrogen-bond geometry between odd diamide units of Nylon-56 molecular chains with an all trans conformation and (b) scheme of the establishment of hydrogen bonds along two directions when consecutive amide planes of a molecular chain slightly rotate in opposite directions from the plane defined by the methylene carbon atoms (nitrogen, blue; oxygen, red; carbon, gray; hydrogen, brown), originally published in [180].
Mentions: Biodegradation of synthetic polyamides is generally known to be poor, although its chemical structure (presence of amide bonds in the main chain) resembles those of natural proteins and synthetic polypeptides [9,176,177]. The high resistance to degradation of synthetic polyamides is caused mainly by the high symmetry of their molecular structures and strong intermolecular cohesive force caused by hydrogen bonds between molecular chains, which results in highly crystalline morphology (Figure 8) [178,179,180]. However, several papers and reviews report on the degradation of oligomers and higher molar mass polyamides by different microorganisms and enzymes [178,181]. Nylon-66 and Nylon-6 are significantly degraded by enzymes from white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta [182,183,184]. Biodegradation of Nylon-6 oligomers is also observed with Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium [178]. Andreoni et al. [185] described three mixed cultures of aerobic bacteria able to grow on 6-aminocaproic acid polyamides of low molar mass (up to 6800 g/mol), but biodegradability of polyamides of molar mass higher than 11,000 g/mol was not reported. The extent of the bacterial growth was found to dependent on the amount of cyclic and linear oligomers present in the polymeric matrix.

Bottom Line: This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers.Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined.Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Polymers, Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., Bl. 103A, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. jrydz@polymer.bas.bg.

ABSTRACT
This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

Show MeSH