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Molecular targets of antihypertensive peptides: understanding the mechanisms of action based on the pathophysiology of hypertension.

Majumder K, Wu J - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects.Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention.This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada. kaustav@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some of these peptides have exhibited potent in vivo antihypertensive activity in both animal models and human clinical trials. This review provides an overview about the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and demonstrates the potential roles of food derived bioactive peptides as viable interventions targeting specific pathways involved in this disease process. This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein kinin system to regulate of blood pressure. Angiotensin I (Ang I), Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), Angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1), Angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2), Bradykinin receptor 1 (B1), Bradykinin receptor 2 (B2), Nitric oxide (NO), Prostaglandins 2 (PgI2). Figure 1 modified from [63].
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ijms-16-00256-f001: Renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein kinin system to regulate of blood pressure. Angiotensin I (Ang I), Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), Angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1), Angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2), Bradykinin receptor 1 (B1), Bradykinin receptor 2 (B2), Nitric oxide (NO), Prostaglandins 2 (PgI2). Figure 1 modified from [63].

Mentions: Ang II acts through two main receptors, angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors [30,53] (Figure 1). Binding to AT1 receptor causes vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). It also stimulates release of aldosterone to increase water and salt retention in the kidney, hypertropic growth of cardiomyocytes, and collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts resulting in cardiac remodeling. In pathogenic conditions involving tissue remodeling and vascular inflammation, AT1 receptor is up regulated [56,57,58]. On the other hand, AT2 receptor presents in both endothelial and VSMC mediates vasodilation upon activation, releases NO, and inhibits cell growth [59]. Therefore, AT1 receptor mediates actions with potentially harmful consequences, whereas AT2 receptor, mediated actions exhibits protective effects against hypertension [53,60] (Figure 1).


Molecular targets of antihypertensive peptides: understanding the mechanisms of action based on the pathophysiology of hypertension.

Majumder K, Wu J - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein kinin system to regulate of blood pressure. Angiotensin I (Ang I), Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), Angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1), Angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2), Bradykinin receptor 1 (B1), Bradykinin receptor 2 (B2), Nitric oxide (NO), Prostaglandins 2 (PgI2). Figure 1 modified from [63].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307246&req=5

ijms-16-00256-f001: Renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein kinin system to regulate of blood pressure. Angiotensin I (Ang I), Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), Angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1), Angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2), Bradykinin receptor 1 (B1), Bradykinin receptor 2 (B2), Nitric oxide (NO), Prostaglandins 2 (PgI2). Figure 1 modified from [63].
Mentions: Ang II acts through two main receptors, angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors [30,53] (Figure 1). Binding to AT1 receptor causes vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). It also stimulates release of aldosterone to increase water and salt retention in the kidney, hypertropic growth of cardiomyocytes, and collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts resulting in cardiac remodeling. In pathogenic conditions involving tissue remodeling and vascular inflammation, AT1 receptor is up regulated [56,57,58]. On the other hand, AT2 receptor presents in both endothelial and VSMC mediates vasodilation upon activation, releases NO, and inhibits cell growth [59]. Therefore, AT1 receptor mediates actions with potentially harmful consequences, whereas AT2 receptor, mediated actions exhibits protective effects against hypertension [53,60] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects.Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention.This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada. kaustav@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some of these peptides have exhibited potent in vivo antihypertensive activity in both animal models and human clinical trials. This review provides an overview about the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and demonstrates the potential roles of food derived bioactive peptides as viable interventions targeting specific pathways involved in this disease process. This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus