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Oxidative stress and its significant roles in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Thanan R, Oikawa S, Hiraku Y, Ohnishi S, Ma N, Pinlaor S, Yongvanit P, Kawanishi S, Murata M - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases.Our recent studies identifying and characterizing carbonylated proteins reveal oxidative damage to heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disease models and inflammation-related cancer, suggesting dysfunction in their antioxidative properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. mrsomchaip@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases. Previous studies suggest roles of lipid peroxidation and oxysterols in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation-related cancer. Our recent studies identifying and characterizing carbonylated proteins reveal oxidative damage to heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disease models and inflammation-related cancer, suggesting dysfunction in their antioxidative properties. In neurodegenerative diseases, DNA damage may not only play a role in the induction of apoptosis, but also may inhibit cellular division via telomere shortening. Immunohistochemical analyses showed co-localization of oxidative/nitrative DNA lesions and stemness markers in the cells of inflammation-related cancers. Here, we review oxidative stress and its significant roles in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

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Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and their sources from endogenous and environmental factors.
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ijms-16-00193-f001: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and their sources from endogenous and environmental factors.

Mentions: Oxygen is one of the most prevalent elements on Earth and is essential for energy production by the living organisms known as “aerobes”. However, oxygen is also an initiator of free radical generation, which can injure the living organism. Antioxidant systems are adapted in aerobic organisms for protection against free radical toxicity. Oxidative stress is a situation that introduces a high production of oxidants or a low level of antioxidants, which results in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems causing free radical damage. Figure 1 shows the source of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Oxidative stress can be extrinsically induced by environmental factors such as chemicals, UV light, infectious organisms and intrinsically by endogenous factors such as the electron transport chain in mitochondria, some enzyme activities (for example: NADH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)) and respiratory bursts from inflammatory cells.


Oxidative stress and its significant roles in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Thanan R, Oikawa S, Hiraku Y, Ohnishi S, Ma N, Pinlaor S, Yongvanit P, Kawanishi S, Murata M - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and their sources from endogenous and environmental factors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307243&req=5

ijms-16-00193-f001: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and their sources from endogenous and environmental factors.
Mentions: Oxygen is one of the most prevalent elements on Earth and is essential for energy production by the living organisms known as “aerobes”. However, oxygen is also an initiator of free radical generation, which can injure the living organism. Antioxidant systems are adapted in aerobic organisms for protection against free radical toxicity. Oxidative stress is a situation that introduces a high production of oxidants or a low level of antioxidants, which results in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems causing free radical damage. Figure 1 shows the source of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Oxidative stress can be extrinsically induced by environmental factors such as chemicals, UV light, infectious organisms and intrinsically by endogenous factors such as the electron transport chain in mitochondria, some enzyme activities (for example: NADH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)) and respiratory bursts from inflammatory cells.

Bottom Line: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases.Our recent studies identifying and characterizing carbonylated proteins reveal oxidative damage to heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disease models and inflammation-related cancer, suggesting dysfunction in their antioxidative properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. mrsomchaip@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases. Previous studies suggest roles of lipid peroxidation and oxysterols in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation-related cancer. Our recent studies identifying and characterizing carbonylated proteins reveal oxidative damage to heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disease models and inflammation-related cancer, suggesting dysfunction in their antioxidative properties. In neurodegenerative diseases, DNA damage may not only play a role in the induction of apoptosis, but also may inhibit cellular division via telomere shortening. Immunohistochemical analyses showed co-localization of oxidative/nitrative DNA lesions and stemness markers in the cells of inflammation-related cancers. Here, we review oxidative stress and its significant roles in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus