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The regulation of nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in mouse and human fallopian tubes: potential insights for ectopic pregnancy.

Hu J, Ma S, Zou S, Li X, Cui P, Weijdegård B, Wu G, Shao R, Billig H, Feng Y - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Nitric oxide (NO) is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions.It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS), which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Lab of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical College and Institute of Acupuncture Research (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. 11211250005@fudan.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions. It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS), which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). NOS activity is localized in the reproductive tracts of many species, although direct evidence for NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tubes of mice is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the expression and regulation of NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during the estrous and menstrual cycles, respectively. We also measured isoform expression in humans with ectopic pregnancy and in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results confirmed the presence of different NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during different stages of the estrous and menstrual cycles and showed that iNOS expression increased in the Fallopian tubes of women with ectopic pregnancy and in LPS-treated mice. Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. This study has provided morphological and molecular evidence that NOS isoforms are present and active in the human and mouse Fallopian tubes and suggests that iNOS might play an important role in both the reproductive cycle and infection-induced ectopic pregnancies.

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Immunochemical detection of iNOS and eNOS expression in the mouse Fallopian tubes after injection of LPS for two days. (A1,A2) iNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). iNOS expression was stronger in LPS-treated group and present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells; (B1,B2) eNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the 0.9% NS. Epi, epithelial cells; Sm, smooth muscle cells; NS, normal saline. Scale bar = 100 µm.
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ijms-16-00049-f008: Immunochemical detection of iNOS and eNOS expression in the mouse Fallopian tubes after injection of LPS for two days. (A1,A2) iNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). iNOS expression was stronger in LPS-treated group and present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells; (B1,B2) eNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the 0.9% NS. Epi, epithelial cells; Sm, smooth muscle cells; NS, normal saline. Scale bar = 100 µm.

Mentions: We reproduced an inflammatory model in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 1 μg/mg LPS and used immunohistochemistry to investigate iNOS and eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes. The expression of iNOS was stronger in the Fallopian tubes of mice treated with LPS compared to controls. iNOS was present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the control group (Figure 8).


The regulation of nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in mouse and human fallopian tubes: potential insights for ectopic pregnancy.

Hu J, Ma S, Zou S, Li X, Cui P, Weijdegård B, Wu G, Shao R, Billig H, Feng Y - Int J Mol Sci (2014)

Immunochemical detection of iNOS and eNOS expression in the mouse Fallopian tubes after injection of LPS for two days. (A1,A2) iNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). iNOS expression was stronger in LPS-treated group and present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells; (B1,B2) eNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the 0.9% NS. Epi, epithelial cells; Sm, smooth muscle cells; NS, normal saline. Scale bar = 100 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307235&req=5

ijms-16-00049-f008: Immunochemical detection of iNOS and eNOS expression in the mouse Fallopian tubes after injection of LPS for two days. (A1,A2) iNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). iNOS expression was stronger in LPS-treated group and present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells; (B1,B2) eNOS expression in Fallopian tubes of mice treated with 0.9% NS compared with LPS. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the 0.9% NS. Epi, epithelial cells; Sm, smooth muscle cells; NS, normal saline. Scale bar = 100 µm.
Mentions: We reproduced an inflammatory model in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 1 μg/mg LPS and used immunohistochemistry to investigate iNOS and eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes. The expression of iNOS was stronger in the Fallopian tubes of mice treated with LPS compared to controls. iNOS was present in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells. eNOS was also expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the epithelial cells, but there was no obvious change in eNOS expression in the Fallopian tubes of the LPS-treated mice compared to the control group (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: Nitric oxide (NO) is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions.It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS), which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Lab of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical College and Institute of Acupuncture Research (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. 11211250005@fudan.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions. It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS), which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). NOS activity is localized in the reproductive tracts of many species, although direct evidence for NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tubes of mice is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the expression and regulation of NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during the estrous and menstrual cycles, respectively. We also measured isoform expression in humans with ectopic pregnancy and in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results confirmed the presence of different NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during different stages of the estrous and menstrual cycles and showed that iNOS expression increased in the Fallopian tubes of women with ectopic pregnancy and in LPS-treated mice. Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. This study has provided morphological and molecular evidence that NOS isoforms are present and active in the human and mouse Fallopian tubes and suggests that iNOS might play an important role in both the reproductive cycle and infection-induced ectopic pregnancies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus