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Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention.

Robinson SM, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Barton BD, Law CM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Inskip HM - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2014)

Bottom Line: Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects.After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001).These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Medical Research Council (MRC) Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom (SMR, SRC, NCH, BDB, KMG, CC, and HMI); the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom (SMR, NCH, KMG, and CC); NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom (CC); and UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom (CML).

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life may be a "critical period" when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects.

Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey).

Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003.

Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative risk (95% CI) of being overweight or obese at 4 and 6 y of age [defined by using IOTF cutoffs (22)], according to number of early-life risk factors (number of children: 116 at 4 y and 109 at 6 y with no risk factors, 233 at 4 y and 251 at 6 y with 1 risk factor, 200 at 4 y and 224 at 6 y with 2 risk factors, 102 at 4 y and 119 at 6 y with 3 risk factors, and 37 at 4 y and 46 at 6 y with 4 or 5 risk factors). Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. P values were determined by Poisson regression models with robust variance of IOTF overweight/obese on continuous risk factor score. IOTF, International Obesity Task Force.
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fig1: Relative risk (95% CI) of being overweight or obese at 4 and 6 y of age [defined by using IOTF cutoffs (22)], according to number of early-life risk factors (number of children: 116 at 4 y and 109 at 6 y with no risk factors, 233 at 4 y and 251 at 6 y with 1 risk factor, 200 at 4 y and 224 at 6 y with 2 risk factors, 102 at 4 y and 119 at 6 y with 3 risk factors, and 37 at 4 y and 46 at 6 y with 4 or 5 risk factors). Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. P values were determined by Poisson regression models with robust variance of IOTF overweight/obese on continuous risk factor score. IOTF, International Obesity Task Force.

Mentions: According to the IOTF BMI cutoffs, 77 (11.2%) of children were defined as overweight and 19 (2.8%) were obese at 4 y; the figures at 6 y were 97 (12.9%) and 25 (3.3%), respectively. The relative risk of being overweight or obese at 4 or 6 y of age, according to number of early-life risk factors, is shown in Figure 1. At both ages studied, there was a graded increase in risk, such that, after taking account of the effects of confounders, the relative risk for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with the children who had none (P < 0.001 at both ages). Further adjustment for level of physical activity in childhood and prudent diet score attenuated the associations, but a 4-fold difference in relative risk remained [relative risk for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.55, 7.92) at 4 y and 3.52 (95% CI: 1.56, 7.95) at 6 y].


Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention.

Robinson SM, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Barton BD, Law CM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Inskip HM - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2014)

Relative risk (95% CI) of being overweight or obese at 4 and 6 y of age [defined by using IOTF cutoffs (22)], according to number of early-life risk factors (number of children: 116 at 4 y and 109 at 6 y with no risk factors, 233 at 4 y and 251 at 6 y with 1 risk factor, 200 at 4 y and 224 at 6 y with 2 risk factors, 102 at 4 y and 119 at 6 y with 3 risk factors, and 37 at 4 y and 46 at 6 y with 4 or 5 risk factors). Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. P values were determined by Poisson regression models with robust variance of IOTF overweight/obese on continuous risk factor score. IOTF, International Obesity Task Force.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4307207&req=5

fig1: Relative risk (95% CI) of being overweight or obese at 4 and 6 y of age [defined by using IOTF cutoffs (22)], according to number of early-life risk factors (number of children: 116 at 4 y and 109 at 6 y with no risk factors, 233 at 4 y and 251 at 6 y with 1 risk factor, 200 at 4 y and 224 at 6 y with 2 risk factors, 102 at 4 y and 119 at 6 y with 3 risk factors, and 37 at 4 y and 46 at 6 y with 4 or 5 risk factors). Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. P values were determined by Poisson regression models with robust variance of IOTF overweight/obese on continuous risk factor score. IOTF, International Obesity Task Force.
Mentions: According to the IOTF BMI cutoffs, 77 (11.2%) of children were defined as overweight and 19 (2.8%) were obese at 4 y; the figures at 6 y were 97 (12.9%) and 25 (3.3%), respectively. The relative risk of being overweight or obese at 4 or 6 y of age, according to number of early-life risk factors, is shown in Figure 1. At both ages studied, there was a graded increase in risk, such that, after taking account of the effects of confounders, the relative risk for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with the children who had none (P < 0.001 at both ages). Further adjustment for level of physical activity in childhood and prudent diet score attenuated the associations, but a 4-fold difference in relative risk remained [relative risk for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.55, 7.92) at 4 y and 3.52 (95% CI: 1.56, 7.95) at 6 y].

Bottom Line: Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects.After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001).These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Medical Research Council (MRC) Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom (SMR, SRC, NCH, BDB, KMG, CC, and HMI); the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom (SMR, NCH, KMG, and CC); NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom (CC); and UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom (CML).

ABSTRACT

Background: Early life may be a "critical period" when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects.

Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey).

Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003.

Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus