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Optimum periodicity of repeated contractile actions applied in mass transport.

Ahn S, Lee SJ - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions.Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system.In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Biofluid and Biomimic Research Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Korea [2] Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Dynamically repeated periodic patterns are abundant in natural and artificial systems, such as tides, heart beats, stock prices, and the like. The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions. In this study, such optimum periodicity is experimentally evaluated in terms of effective mass transport using one-valve and multi-valve systems working in contractile fluid flows. A set of nanoscale gating functions is utilized, operating in nanocomposite networks through which permeates selectively pass under characteristic contractile actions. Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system. In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport. This study provides fundamental understanding on the various repeated periodic patterns and dynamic repeatability occurring in nature and mechanical systems, which are useful for broad applications.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Experimental set-up for mass-transport. Permeate molecules of periodic injection (fin) are loaded with a controlled flow rate (r). (b) Temperature control (left) and molecular signal detection (right) are highly synchronized, indicating stably optimized system for mass transport investigation. (c) Retention time (Rt) during which the permeate molecules are stay in the cell before they are detected at the outlet. At a fixed r, the input frequency (fin) and output frequency (fout) are kept same. (d) Rt decreases linearly, whereas normalized frequency (fout/fin) maintains unity according to r.
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f2: (a) Experimental set-up for mass-transport. Permeate molecules of periodic injection (fin) are loaded with a controlled flow rate (r). (b) Temperature control (left) and molecular signal detection (right) are highly synchronized, indicating stably optimized system for mass transport investigation. (c) Retention time (Rt) during which the permeate molecules are stay in the cell before they are detected at the outlet. At a fixed r, the input frequency (fin) and output frequency (fout) are kept same. (d) Rt decreases linearly, whereas normalized frequency (fout/fin) maintains unity according to r.

Mentions: Mass transport is effectively controlled using the designed apparatus (Fig. 2a). Selected permeate molecules1920 pass through the nanocomposites loaded in a designed diffusion cell. The outlet of permeates is a function of permeate input frequency (fin), inlet flow rate (r), and geometry of nanocomposite controlled by temperature (T). The concentration-controlled permeate solutions are loaded at a designed time interval to generate periodic input. Approximately 0.01 μL of 0.1 g/mL rhodamine 6G aqueous solution is loaded for one shot, and the number of shots in a minute is varied by changing the fin from 1 min−1 to 8 min−1. The signal from the eluted permeates is recorded in a continuous mode (see Methods). The nanocomposite is embedded in the PVA matrix for molding into a cylinder (diameter: 0.1 cm; length: 10 cm). This cylinder-shaped nanocomposite pellet is loaded into a humidity-controlled 0.1 cm-thick glass tube. The tube has heating coils, and it is connected to the inlet pressure and signal detecting devices. The durability and repeatability of the nanocomposite are verified up to 500 min of successive mechanical repetitions. Thus, all the experiments in the previous study are performed under this condition (Supporting Information).


Optimum periodicity of repeated contractile actions applied in mass transport.

Ahn S, Lee SJ - Sci Rep (2015)

(a) Experimental set-up for mass-transport. Permeate molecules of periodic injection (fin) are loaded with a controlled flow rate (r). (b) Temperature control (left) and molecular signal detection (right) are highly synchronized, indicating stably optimized system for mass transport investigation. (c) Retention time (Rt) during which the permeate molecules are stay in the cell before they are detected at the outlet. At a fixed r, the input frequency (fin) and output frequency (fout) are kept same. (d) Rt decreases linearly, whereas normalized frequency (fout/fin) maintains unity according to r.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306965&req=5

f2: (a) Experimental set-up for mass-transport. Permeate molecules of periodic injection (fin) are loaded with a controlled flow rate (r). (b) Temperature control (left) and molecular signal detection (right) are highly synchronized, indicating stably optimized system for mass transport investigation. (c) Retention time (Rt) during which the permeate molecules are stay in the cell before they are detected at the outlet. At a fixed r, the input frequency (fin) and output frequency (fout) are kept same. (d) Rt decreases linearly, whereas normalized frequency (fout/fin) maintains unity according to r.
Mentions: Mass transport is effectively controlled using the designed apparatus (Fig. 2a). Selected permeate molecules1920 pass through the nanocomposites loaded in a designed diffusion cell. The outlet of permeates is a function of permeate input frequency (fin), inlet flow rate (r), and geometry of nanocomposite controlled by temperature (T). The concentration-controlled permeate solutions are loaded at a designed time interval to generate periodic input. Approximately 0.01 μL of 0.1 g/mL rhodamine 6G aqueous solution is loaded for one shot, and the number of shots in a minute is varied by changing the fin from 1 min−1 to 8 min−1. The signal from the eluted permeates is recorded in a continuous mode (see Methods). The nanocomposite is embedded in the PVA matrix for molding into a cylinder (diameter: 0.1 cm; length: 10 cm). This cylinder-shaped nanocomposite pellet is loaded into a humidity-controlled 0.1 cm-thick glass tube. The tube has heating coils, and it is connected to the inlet pressure and signal detecting devices. The durability and repeatability of the nanocomposite are verified up to 500 min of successive mechanical repetitions. Thus, all the experiments in the previous study are performed under this condition (Supporting Information).

Bottom Line: The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions.Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system.In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Biofluid and Biomimic Research Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Korea [2] Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Dynamically repeated periodic patterns are abundant in natural and artificial systems, such as tides, heart beats, stock prices, and the like. The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions. In this study, such optimum periodicity is experimentally evaluated in terms of effective mass transport using one-valve and multi-valve systems working in contractile fluid flows. A set of nanoscale gating functions is utilized, operating in nanocomposite networks through which permeates selectively pass under characteristic contractile actions. Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system. In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport. This study provides fundamental understanding on the various repeated periodic patterns and dynamic repeatability occurring in nature and mechanical systems, which are useful for broad applications.

No MeSH data available.