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Magnetotactic bacteria as potential sources of bioproducts.

Araujo AC, Abreu F, Silva KT, Bazylinski DA, Lins U - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result of this control, magnetosomes have narrow and uniform size ranges, relatively specific magnetic and crystalline properties, and an enveloping biological membrane.Most currently described MTB have been isolated from saline or brackish environments and the availability of their genomes has contributed to a better understanding and culturing of these fastidious microorganisms.More specifically, we discovered that the genome of the cultured MTB Magnetovibrio blakemorei, among other MTB, contains several metabolic pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and other compounds, thereby raising the possibility of the co-production of new bioactive molecules along with magnetosomes by this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil. acvaraujo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) produce intracellular organelles called magnetosomes which are magnetic nanoparticles composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) enveloped by a lipid bilayer. The synthesis of a magnetosome is through a genetically controlled process in which the bacterium has control over the composition, direction of crystal growth, and the size and shape of the mineral crystal. As a result of this control, magnetosomes have narrow and uniform size ranges, relatively specific magnetic and crystalline properties, and an enveloping biological membrane. These features are not observed in magnetic particles produced abiotically and thus magnetosomes are of great interest in biotechnology. Most currently described MTB have been isolated from saline or brackish environments and the availability of their genomes has contributed to a better understanding and culturing of these fastidious microorganisms. Moreover, genome sequences have allowed researchers to study genes related to magnetosome production for the synthesis of magnetic particles for use in future commercial and medical applications. Here, we review the current information on the biology of MTB and apply, for the first time, a genome mining strategy on these microorganisms to search for secondary metabolite synthesis genes. More specifically, we discovered that the genome of the cultured MTB Magnetovibrio blakemorei, among other MTB, contains several metabolic pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and other compounds, thereby raising the possibility of the co-production of new bioactive molecules along with magnetosomes by this species.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cluster of genes containing PKS-NRPS domains in the genome of Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1. Scale bar = 1 Kb. ACP/PCP—acyl carrier protein/peptidyl carrier protein; KS—ketosynthase; AT—acyltransferase; DH—dehydratase; KR—β-ketoreductase; AMP—adenosine monophosphate; ACPS/cMT—acyl carrier protein synthase/c-methyl transferase.
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marinedrugs-13-00389-f007: Cluster of genes containing PKS-NRPS domains in the genome of Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1. Scale bar = 1 Kb. ACP/PCP—acyl carrier protein/peptidyl carrier protein; KS—ketosynthase; AT—acyltransferase; DH—dehydratase; KR—β-ketoreductase; AMP—adenosine monophosphate; ACPS/cMT—acyl carrier protein synthase/c-methyl transferase.

Mentions: The most promising marine magnetotactic candidate for the production of secondary metabolites appears to be Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 which is the most metabolically versatile magnetotactic bacterium [17] and has been mass cultured to large scale [39]. A large gene cluster containing seven ORFs with PKS-NRPS domains (Figure 7) is present in the genome of Mv. blakemorei. The longest ORF (6560 amino acids) in this cluster encodes a multi-domain protein whose highest degree of similarity is to a protein of unknown function present in Ms. gryphiswaldense (identity 51%, coverage 98%). Proteins encoded by two other ORFs (4345 and 2570 amino acids) in the same cluster are similar to beta-ketoacyl synthase found in Ms. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 (identity 51%, coverage 98%) and Oceanibaculum indicum (identity 55%, coverage 96%), respectively. The four smaller ORFs in the cluster include genes that encode for beta-ketoacyl synthase and malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein, also similar to proteins from Ms. gryphiswaldense and O. indicum (similarity higher than 58% and coverage 98%). It is noteworthy that Magnetospirillum, Magnetovibrio, and Oceanibaculum all phylogenetically belong to the family Rhodospirillaceae suggesting that this gene cluster has been in the genomes of these organisms for some time and is stable in the genome. Considering that both Ms. gryphiswaldense and Mv. blakemorei are already being mass cultured in large scale for the production of magnetosomes, this cluster of genes deserves further attention. Elucidation of pathways and products in these MTB could lead to the co-production of new bioactive molecules in conjunction with magnetosomes.


Magnetotactic bacteria as potential sources of bioproducts.

Araujo AC, Abreu F, Silva KT, Bazylinski DA, Lins U - Mar Drugs (2015)

Cluster of genes containing PKS-NRPS domains in the genome of Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1. Scale bar = 1 Kb. ACP/PCP—acyl carrier protein/peptidyl carrier protein; KS—ketosynthase; AT—acyltransferase; DH—dehydratase; KR—β-ketoreductase; AMP—adenosine monophosphate; ACPS/cMT—acyl carrier protein synthase/c-methyl transferase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306944&req=5

marinedrugs-13-00389-f007: Cluster of genes containing PKS-NRPS domains in the genome of Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1. Scale bar = 1 Kb. ACP/PCP—acyl carrier protein/peptidyl carrier protein; KS—ketosynthase; AT—acyltransferase; DH—dehydratase; KR—β-ketoreductase; AMP—adenosine monophosphate; ACPS/cMT—acyl carrier protein synthase/c-methyl transferase.
Mentions: The most promising marine magnetotactic candidate for the production of secondary metabolites appears to be Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 which is the most metabolically versatile magnetotactic bacterium [17] and has been mass cultured to large scale [39]. A large gene cluster containing seven ORFs with PKS-NRPS domains (Figure 7) is present in the genome of Mv. blakemorei. The longest ORF (6560 amino acids) in this cluster encodes a multi-domain protein whose highest degree of similarity is to a protein of unknown function present in Ms. gryphiswaldense (identity 51%, coverage 98%). Proteins encoded by two other ORFs (4345 and 2570 amino acids) in the same cluster are similar to beta-ketoacyl synthase found in Ms. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 (identity 51%, coverage 98%) and Oceanibaculum indicum (identity 55%, coverage 96%), respectively. The four smaller ORFs in the cluster include genes that encode for beta-ketoacyl synthase and malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein, also similar to proteins from Ms. gryphiswaldense and O. indicum (similarity higher than 58% and coverage 98%). It is noteworthy that Magnetospirillum, Magnetovibrio, and Oceanibaculum all phylogenetically belong to the family Rhodospirillaceae suggesting that this gene cluster has been in the genomes of these organisms for some time and is stable in the genome. Considering that both Ms. gryphiswaldense and Mv. blakemorei are already being mass cultured in large scale for the production of magnetosomes, this cluster of genes deserves further attention. Elucidation of pathways and products in these MTB could lead to the co-production of new bioactive molecules in conjunction with magnetosomes.

Bottom Line: As a result of this control, magnetosomes have narrow and uniform size ranges, relatively specific magnetic and crystalline properties, and an enveloping biological membrane.Most currently described MTB have been isolated from saline or brackish environments and the availability of their genomes has contributed to a better understanding and culturing of these fastidious microorganisms.More specifically, we discovered that the genome of the cultured MTB Magnetovibrio blakemorei, among other MTB, contains several metabolic pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and other compounds, thereby raising the possibility of the co-production of new bioactive molecules along with magnetosomes by this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil. acvaraujo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) produce intracellular organelles called magnetosomes which are magnetic nanoparticles composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) enveloped by a lipid bilayer. The synthesis of a magnetosome is through a genetically controlled process in which the bacterium has control over the composition, direction of crystal growth, and the size and shape of the mineral crystal. As a result of this control, magnetosomes have narrow and uniform size ranges, relatively specific magnetic and crystalline properties, and an enveloping biological membrane. These features are not observed in magnetic particles produced abiotically and thus magnetosomes are of great interest in biotechnology. Most currently described MTB have been isolated from saline or brackish environments and the availability of their genomes has contributed to a better understanding and culturing of these fastidious microorganisms. Moreover, genome sequences have allowed researchers to study genes related to magnetosome production for the synthesis of magnetic particles for use in future commercial and medical applications. Here, we review the current information on the biology of MTB and apply, for the first time, a genome mining strategy on these microorganisms to search for secondary metabolite synthesis genes. More specifically, we discovered that the genome of the cultured MTB Magnetovibrio blakemorei, among other MTB, contains several metabolic pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and other compounds, thereby raising the possibility of the co-production of new bioactive molecules along with magnetosomes by this species.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus