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Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

Davies GI, McIver L, Kim Y, Hashizume M, Iddings S, Chan V - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap.Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas.Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia. gidav2@student.monash.edu.

ABSTRACT
Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

AIC and flood effect estimates on diarrhoea according to changing degree of freedom (DF) from one to six. We selected four degrees of freedom, showing smaller AIC and relatively stable effect estimate of flood on diarrhoea.
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ijerph-12-00191-f005: AIC and flood effect estimates on diarrhoea according to changing degree of freedom (DF) from one to six. We selected four degrees of freedom, showing smaller AIC and relatively stable effect estimate of flood on diarrhoea.

Mentions: A sensitivity analysis was also conducted, as flood events can be an intermediate factor between rainfall and diarrhoea incidence. An additional model was then compiled, adjusting for rainfall, in addition to a final model, to examine whether the effects of flood on diarrhoea were consistent (Figure A1). Distributed lag models were also used to confirm the consistency of the results (Figure A1, Figure A2 and Figure A3) and the results were compared with those from single-lag models.


Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

Davies GI, McIver L, Kim Y, Hashizume M, Iddings S, Chan V - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

AIC and flood effect estimates on diarrhoea according to changing degree of freedom (DF) from one to six. We selected four degrees of freedom, showing smaller AIC and relatively stable effect estimate of flood on diarrhoea.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306857&req=5

ijerph-12-00191-f005: AIC and flood effect estimates on diarrhoea according to changing degree of freedom (DF) from one to six. We selected four degrees of freedom, showing smaller AIC and relatively stable effect estimate of flood on diarrhoea.
Mentions: A sensitivity analysis was also conducted, as flood events can be an intermediate factor between rainfall and diarrhoea incidence. An additional model was then compiled, adjusting for rainfall, in addition to a final model, to examine whether the effects of flood on diarrhoea were consistent (Figure A1). Distributed lag models were also used to confirm the consistency of the results (Figure A1, Figure A2 and Figure A3) and the results were compared with those from single-lag models.

Bottom Line: Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap.Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas.Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia. gidav2@student.monash.edu.

ABSTRACT
Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus