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Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

Sanchez M, Panahi S, Tremblay A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk.Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community.As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. marina.sanchez@kin.ulaval.ca.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms. (A) An imbalance in intestinal microbiota leads to an increase in SCFA and gut permeability and decrease in FIAF and AMPK; and (B) A restored microbiota by prebiotics and/or probiotics may inhibit the mechanisms described in (A) and lead to an increase in the hormones PYY and GLP-1 and decrease in ghrelin.
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ijerph-12-00162-f001: Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms. (A) An imbalance in intestinal microbiota leads to an increase in SCFA and gut permeability and decrease in FIAF and AMPK; and (B) A restored microbiota by prebiotics and/or probiotics may inhibit the mechanisms described in (A) and lead to an increase in the hormones PYY and GLP-1 and decrease in ghrelin.

Mentions: Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms (Figure 1). When an imbalance occurs in intestinal microbiota, the bacteria become more effective at extracting energy [60]. The SCFA may act as signaling molecules and stimulate a cascade leading to increased fat storage and energy retention via the GPR41 and GPR43 receptors [54,55]. Microbiota also regulates expression of the FIAF protein (also known as ANGPTL4) which is an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The modification of microbiota causes a decrease in the expression of FIAF resulting in an increase in LPL activity, a catalyst which captures and stores the fatty acids to adipose and muscle tissue, and increase in lipid storage [9,10].


Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

Sanchez M, Panahi S, Tremblay A - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms. (A) An imbalance in intestinal microbiota leads to an increase in SCFA and gut permeability and decrease in FIAF and AMPK; and (B) A restored microbiota by prebiotics and/or probiotics may inhibit the mechanisms described in (A) and lead to an increase in the hormones PYY and GLP-1 and decrease in ghrelin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306855&req=5

ijerph-12-00162-f001: Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms. (A) An imbalance in intestinal microbiota leads to an increase in SCFA and gut permeability and decrease in FIAF and AMPK; and (B) A restored microbiota by prebiotics and/or probiotics may inhibit the mechanisms described in (A) and lead to an increase in the hormones PYY and GLP-1 and decrease in ghrelin.
Mentions: Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may lead to obesity via different mechanisms (Figure 1). When an imbalance occurs in intestinal microbiota, the bacteria become more effective at extracting energy [60]. The SCFA may act as signaling molecules and stimulate a cascade leading to increased fat storage and energy retention via the GPR41 and GPR43 receptors [54,55]. Microbiota also regulates expression of the FIAF protein (also known as ANGPTL4) which is an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The modification of microbiota causes a decrease in the expression of FIAF resulting in an increase in LPL activity, a catalyst which captures and stores the fatty acids to adipose and muscle tissue, and increase in lipid storage [9,10].

Bottom Line: Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk.Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community.As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. marina.sanchez@kin.ulaval.ca.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus