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Usutu virus: an emerging flavivirus in Europe.

Ashraf U, Ye J, Ruan X, Wan S, Zhu B, Cao S - Viruses (2015)

Bottom Line: In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of Eurasian blackbirds.In the subsequent years, USUV expanded to neighboring countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Switzerland, Poland, England, Czech Republic, Greece, and Belgium, where it caused unusual mortality in birds.In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. usamaashraf1523@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. USUV is closely related to Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. USUV was discovered in South Africa in 1959. In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of Eurasian blackbirds. In the subsequent years, USUV expanded to neighboring countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Switzerland, Poland, England, Czech Republic, Greece, and Belgium, where it caused unusual mortality in birds. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. This review describes USUV in terms of its life cycle, USUV surveillance from Africa to Europe, human cases, its cellular tropism and pathogenesis, its genetic relationship with other flaviviruses, genetic diversity among USUV strains, its diagnosis, and a discussion of the potential future threat to Asian countries.

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(A) Phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates. (B) Phylogenetic tree based on polyprotein precursor sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates.
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viruses-07-00219-f003: (A) Phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates. (B) Phylogenetic tree based on polyprotein precursor sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates.

Mentions: The phylogeny of important flaviviruses, including USUV, based on complete genome and polyprotein precursor sequence analyses is shown in Figure 3. The phylogenetic trees are constructed by the neighbor-joining method using MEGA [65]. The relative accession numbers of selected sequences are listed in Table 2.


Usutu virus: an emerging flavivirus in Europe.

Ashraf U, Ye J, Ruan X, Wan S, Zhu B, Cao S - Viruses (2015)

(A) Phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates. (B) Phylogenetic tree based on polyprotein precursor sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306835&req=5

viruses-07-00219-f003: (A) Phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates. (B) Phylogenetic tree based on polyprotein precursor sequence analysis. This figure illustrates the close genetic relationship between USUV and MVEV, WNV, and JEV. The relative accession numbers of selected flavivirus sequences are listed in Table 2. The number at each node is the percentage of 1000 bootstrap replicates.
Mentions: The phylogeny of important flaviviruses, including USUV, based on complete genome and polyprotein precursor sequence analyses is shown in Figure 3. The phylogenetic trees are constructed by the neighbor-joining method using MEGA [65]. The relative accession numbers of selected sequences are listed in Table 2.

Bottom Line: In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of Eurasian blackbirds.In the subsequent years, USUV expanded to neighboring countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Switzerland, Poland, England, Czech Republic, Greece, and Belgium, where it caused unusual mortality in birds.In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. usamaashraf1523@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. USUV is closely related to Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. USUV was discovered in South Africa in 1959. In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of Eurasian blackbirds. In the subsequent years, USUV expanded to neighboring countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Switzerland, Poland, England, Czech Republic, Greece, and Belgium, where it caused unusual mortality in birds. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. This review describes USUV in terms of its life cycle, USUV surveillance from Africa to Europe, human cases, its cellular tropism and pathogenesis, its genetic relationship with other flaviviruses, genetic diversity among USUV strains, its diagnosis, and a discussion of the potential future threat to Asian countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus