Diversity of cortical interneurons in primates: the role of the dorsal proliferative niche.
Bottom Line: In human and nonhuman primates, evidence suggests that an additional subset of neocortical GABAergic interneurons is generated in the cortical VZ and a proliferative niche, the outer SVZ.The origin, magnitude, and significance of this species-specific difference are not known.Our findings suggest that these progenitors constitute an evolutionary novelty contributing to the elaboration of higher cognitive functions in primates.
Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA; Institute of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Pasterova 2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: At P1, the pattern of Nkx2.1 staining in the mouse control brain (Figure S5) was similar to that previously described (Marin et al., 2000). Nkx2.1 expression was restricted to the basal ganglia, while in the cortex only sparse (isolated) Nkx2.1+ cells could be identified, similar to previous reports in neonatal mice (Ohira et al., 2010). In control animals electroporated with (pCAGG-EGFP), transfected cells were not colabeled with the anti-Nkx2.1 antibody and were predominantly located in the upper cortical layers II/III of the cortex and less often in the VZ/SVZ (Figure S5B). In contrast, hNkx2.1/EGFP+ transfected cells were mainly located in the VZ, although individual cells with migratory, bipolar morphology were also demonstrated throughout the cerebral wall, from the ventricular to pial surface (Figure S5C). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the majority of electroporated (hNkx2.1/EGFP+) cells were colabeled with the antibody to Nkx2.1 (Figure S5C) or Lhx6+ and were distributed in the VZ/SVZ, but rarely in the cortical plate (Figure 6A). In addition, a number of electroporated cells expressed GABA (Figure 6B) and were occasionally labeled with CalR, whereas other interneuron markers, such as PV or Sst, did not colabel cortical cells at P1. This finding indicates that after 7 days of differentiation, ectopic expression of hNkx2.1 gene is sufficient to impart GABAergic-like properties in neurons generated in the mouse dorsal pallium.
Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA; Institute of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Pasterova 2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.