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Reactive short-chain leaf volatiles act as powerful inducers of abiotic stress-related gene expression.

Yamauchi Y, Kunishima M, Mizutani M, Sugimoto Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: RSLV-induced expression of HSFA2 and MBF1c was eliminated in HSFA1s-, known as heat stress response master regulators, knockout mutant, whereas those of DREB2A and ZATs were not, suggesting that the RSLV signaling pathway is composed of HSFA1-dependent and -independent pathways.RSLV treatment induced production of chaperon proteins, and the RSLV-treated Arabidopsis thus demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.Because oxidative stress treatment enhanced RSLV production, we concluded that commonly found RSLVs produced by environmental stresses are powerful inducer of abiotic stress-related gene expression as oxidative stress signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai 1-1, Nada, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Abiotic stresses cause serious damage to plants; therefore, plants undergo a complicated stress response through signal transduction originating from environmental stimuli. Here we show that a subset of short-chain leaf volatiles with an α, β-unsaturated carbonyl bond in their structure (reactive short-chain leaf volatiles, RSLVs) like (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-butenal can act as signal chemicals that strongly induce the gene expression of abiotic-related transcription factors, such as heat stress-related transcription factors (HSFA2, MBF1c) and other abiotic stress-related transcription factors (DREB2A, ZATs). RSLV-induced expression of HSFA2 and MBF1c was eliminated in HSFA1s-, known as heat stress response master regulators, knockout mutant, whereas those of DREB2A and ZATs were not, suggesting that the RSLV signaling pathway is composed of HSFA1-dependent and -independent pathways. RSLV treatment induced production of chaperon proteins, and the RSLV-treated Arabidopsis thus demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Because oxidative stress treatment enhanced RSLV production, we concluded that commonly found RSLVs produced by environmental stresses are powerful inducer of abiotic stress-related gene expression as oxidative stress signals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological effects of RSLV treatment of Arabidopsis.(a), After the indicated RSLV treatment or heat treatment at 38°C, expression of HSP101 and HSP17.6 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Rubisco was stained using Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 as a loading control. These images are cropped from original images shown in Supplementary Fig. S11. (b), The 2.5-day-old dark-grown seedlings (Before) were pretreated at 38°C for 90 min to acquire thermotolerance (AT) or 10 μM indicated RSLVs or solvent control (MeCN) for 2 h and then heat-stressed at 45°C for 2 h. Seedling were returned to 23°C in the dark and length was measured after 2.5 days. Length of seedlings before treatment was set to 100%, and elongation of each treatment was calculated. Schemes of treatment are shown above the graph. (c), Survival enhancement was calculated by survival rate determined on 3 days after treatments with same scheme as shown in panel (b). Left; Representative photographs of Arabidopsis plants on 7 days after heat stress treatments. Right; Survival enhancement by RSLV treatment calculated from 3 independent assays. Survival rate of 45°C sample was set to 100%. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey-Kramer (n = 4 or 5; P < 0.05).
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f4: Biological effects of RSLV treatment of Arabidopsis.(a), After the indicated RSLV treatment or heat treatment at 38°C, expression of HSP101 and HSP17.6 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Rubisco was stained using Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 as a loading control. These images are cropped from original images shown in Supplementary Fig. S11. (b), The 2.5-day-old dark-grown seedlings (Before) were pretreated at 38°C for 90 min to acquire thermotolerance (AT) or 10 μM indicated RSLVs or solvent control (MeCN) for 2 h and then heat-stressed at 45°C for 2 h. Seedling were returned to 23°C in the dark and length was measured after 2.5 days. Length of seedlings before treatment was set to 100%, and elongation of each treatment was calculated. Schemes of treatment are shown above the graph. (c), Survival enhancement was calculated by survival rate determined on 3 days after treatments with same scheme as shown in panel (b). Left; Representative photographs of Arabidopsis plants on 7 days after heat stress treatments. Right; Survival enhancement by RSLV treatment calculated from 3 independent assays. Survival rate of 45°C sample was set to 100%. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey-Kramer (n = 4 or 5; P < 0.05).

Mentions: Because RSLVs induced HSF and HSP gene expression, protein expression enhancement by RSLV treatment was confirmed by detecting two HSPs: HSP101 (encoded by At1g74310) and HSP17.6 (encoded by At1g53540). As shown in Fig. 4a, HSP101 and HSP17.6 were induced by (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-butenal and (E)-3-hepten-2-one treatment at 23°C within 2 h, whereas the levels in acetonitrile (MeCN)-treated control plants remained low. Finally, we investigated an effect of RSLV treatment on abiotic stress tolerance. RSLV-induced thermotolerance was assessed by evaluating hypocotyl elongation26 and survival tests, because RSLV treatment could enhance HSFA2 expression and HSP17.6 production (Supplementary Fig. S8) those confer acquired thermotolerance27. After 2.5 days of growth on vertical plates in the dark, the seedlings were applied to the hypocotyl elongation test (Fig. 4b). After heat treatment at 45°C for 2 h, the control and solvent-control seedlings stopped developing, whereas seedlings pretreated at 38°C for 90 min (for gaining acquired thermotolerance) or RSLV-treated seedlings at 23°C for 120 min continued hypocotyl elongation. The thermotolerance enhancing effect of (E)-2-hexenal was not observed in HSFA1s-deficient QK mutants (Supplementary Fig. S9a), indicating that the physiological importance of HSFA1-dependent pathway in heat stress response. In the survival enhancement test, RSLV treatments enhanced thermotolerance similar level to that of acquired thermotolerance (Fig. 4c). In addition, RSLV treatments could enhance protection of PSII from heat- or UV-B-derived damages (Supplementary Fig. S9b, c).


Reactive short-chain leaf volatiles act as powerful inducers of abiotic stress-related gene expression.

Yamauchi Y, Kunishima M, Mizutani M, Sugimoto Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Biological effects of RSLV treatment of Arabidopsis.(a), After the indicated RSLV treatment or heat treatment at 38°C, expression of HSP101 and HSP17.6 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Rubisco was stained using Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 as a loading control. These images are cropped from original images shown in Supplementary Fig. S11. (b), The 2.5-day-old dark-grown seedlings (Before) were pretreated at 38°C for 90 min to acquire thermotolerance (AT) or 10 μM indicated RSLVs or solvent control (MeCN) for 2 h and then heat-stressed at 45°C for 2 h. Seedling were returned to 23°C in the dark and length was measured after 2.5 days. Length of seedlings before treatment was set to 100%, and elongation of each treatment was calculated. Schemes of treatment are shown above the graph. (c), Survival enhancement was calculated by survival rate determined on 3 days after treatments with same scheme as shown in panel (b). Left; Representative photographs of Arabidopsis plants on 7 days after heat stress treatments. Right; Survival enhancement by RSLV treatment calculated from 3 independent assays. Survival rate of 45°C sample was set to 100%. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey-Kramer (n = 4 or 5; P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4306126&req=5

f4: Biological effects of RSLV treatment of Arabidopsis.(a), After the indicated RSLV treatment or heat treatment at 38°C, expression of HSP101 and HSP17.6 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Rubisco was stained using Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 as a loading control. These images are cropped from original images shown in Supplementary Fig. S11. (b), The 2.5-day-old dark-grown seedlings (Before) were pretreated at 38°C for 90 min to acquire thermotolerance (AT) or 10 μM indicated RSLVs or solvent control (MeCN) for 2 h and then heat-stressed at 45°C for 2 h. Seedling were returned to 23°C in the dark and length was measured after 2.5 days. Length of seedlings before treatment was set to 100%, and elongation of each treatment was calculated. Schemes of treatment are shown above the graph. (c), Survival enhancement was calculated by survival rate determined on 3 days after treatments with same scheme as shown in panel (b). Left; Representative photographs of Arabidopsis plants on 7 days after heat stress treatments. Right; Survival enhancement by RSLV treatment calculated from 3 independent assays. Survival rate of 45°C sample was set to 100%. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey-Kramer (n = 4 or 5; P < 0.05).
Mentions: Because RSLVs induced HSF and HSP gene expression, protein expression enhancement by RSLV treatment was confirmed by detecting two HSPs: HSP101 (encoded by At1g74310) and HSP17.6 (encoded by At1g53540). As shown in Fig. 4a, HSP101 and HSP17.6 were induced by (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-butenal and (E)-3-hepten-2-one treatment at 23°C within 2 h, whereas the levels in acetonitrile (MeCN)-treated control plants remained low. Finally, we investigated an effect of RSLV treatment on abiotic stress tolerance. RSLV-induced thermotolerance was assessed by evaluating hypocotyl elongation26 and survival tests, because RSLV treatment could enhance HSFA2 expression and HSP17.6 production (Supplementary Fig. S8) those confer acquired thermotolerance27. After 2.5 days of growth on vertical plates in the dark, the seedlings were applied to the hypocotyl elongation test (Fig. 4b). After heat treatment at 45°C for 2 h, the control and solvent-control seedlings stopped developing, whereas seedlings pretreated at 38°C for 90 min (for gaining acquired thermotolerance) or RSLV-treated seedlings at 23°C for 120 min continued hypocotyl elongation. The thermotolerance enhancing effect of (E)-2-hexenal was not observed in HSFA1s-deficient QK mutants (Supplementary Fig. S9a), indicating that the physiological importance of HSFA1-dependent pathway in heat stress response. In the survival enhancement test, RSLV treatments enhanced thermotolerance similar level to that of acquired thermotolerance (Fig. 4c). In addition, RSLV treatments could enhance protection of PSII from heat- or UV-B-derived damages (Supplementary Fig. S9b, c).

Bottom Line: RSLV-induced expression of HSFA2 and MBF1c was eliminated in HSFA1s-, known as heat stress response master regulators, knockout mutant, whereas those of DREB2A and ZATs were not, suggesting that the RSLV signaling pathway is composed of HSFA1-dependent and -independent pathways.RSLV treatment induced production of chaperon proteins, and the RSLV-treated Arabidopsis thus demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.Because oxidative stress treatment enhanced RSLV production, we concluded that commonly found RSLVs produced by environmental stresses are powerful inducer of abiotic stress-related gene expression as oxidative stress signals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai 1-1, Nada, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Abiotic stresses cause serious damage to plants; therefore, plants undergo a complicated stress response through signal transduction originating from environmental stimuli. Here we show that a subset of short-chain leaf volatiles with an α, β-unsaturated carbonyl bond in their structure (reactive short-chain leaf volatiles, RSLVs) like (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-butenal can act as signal chemicals that strongly induce the gene expression of abiotic-related transcription factors, such as heat stress-related transcription factors (HSFA2, MBF1c) and other abiotic stress-related transcription factors (DREB2A, ZATs). RSLV-induced expression of HSFA2 and MBF1c was eliminated in HSFA1s-, known as heat stress response master regulators, knockout mutant, whereas those of DREB2A and ZATs were not, suggesting that the RSLV signaling pathway is composed of HSFA1-dependent and -independent pathways. RSLV treatment induced production of chaperon proteins, and the RSLV-treated Arabidopsis thus demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Because oxidative stress treatment enhanced RSLV production, we concluded that commonly found RSLVs produced by environmental stresses are powerful inducer of abiotic stress-related gene expression as oxidative stress signals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus