Influence of model boundary conditions on blood flow patterns in a patient specific stenotic right coronary artery.
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Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared.When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure.On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the inlet and the outlet did not have significant effect on the spatial distribution patterns of the PD, the WPG and the WSS on the lumen surface, regarding the locations of the maximum and the minimum of each quantity.
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Background: In literature, the effect of the inflow boundary condition was investigated by examining the impact of the waveform and the shape of the spatial profile of the inlet velocity on the cardiac hemodynamics. However, not much work has been reported on comparing the effect of the different combinations of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions on the quantification of the pressure field and flow distribution patterns in stenotic right coronary arteries. Method: Non-Newtonian models were used to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific stenotic right coronary artery and investigate the influence of different boundary conditions on the phasic variation and the spatial distribution patterns of blood flow. The 3D geometry of a diseased artery segment was reconstructed from a series of IVUS slices. Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared. Results: The temporal distribution patterns and the magnitudes of the velocity, the wall shear stress (WSS), the pressure, the pressure drop (PD), and the spatial gradient of wall pressure (WPG) were different when boundary conditions were imposed using different pressure/velocity combinations at inlet/outlet. The maximum velocity magnitude in a cardiac cycle at the center of the inlet from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% lower than that from models using fully developed inlet velocity data. Due to the fact that models with imposed pressure conditions led to blunt velocity profile, the maximum wall shear stress at inlet in a cardiac cycle from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% higher than that from models with imposed inlet velocity boundary conditions. When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure. On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the inlet and the outlet did not have significant effect on the spatial distribution patterns of the PD, the WPG and the WSS on the lumen surface, regarding the locations of the maximum and the minimum of each quantity. Conclusions: The observations from this study indicated that the ways how pressure and velocity boundary conditions are imposed in computational models have considerable impact on flow velocity and shear stress predictions. Accuracy of in vivo measurements of blood pressure and velocity is of great importance for reliable model predictions. Related in: MedlinePlus |
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Mentions: Figure 5 presents the phasic plots of the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the lumen cross section at (1a) the inlet and (1b) the neck of the second stenosis for five models; Figure 5 also presents the wall shear stress at a point on the inner wall of (2a) the inlet and (2b) the neck of the second stenosis for P-V, V-P, V-NS0 and P-P models. Figure 6 includes the contour plots of the velocity magnitude at the inlet lumen cross section for (a) P-V/P-P models and (b) V-P/V-NS0 models. Figure 7 presents the phasic plots of (1) the pressure, (2) the pressure drop, and (3) the spatial gradient of the wall pressure at a point on the inner wall of (a) the inlet and (b) the neck of the second stenosis for P-V, V-P, V-NS0 and P-P models. Figure 8 shows the time averaged mean of (1) the pressure drop, (2) the spatial gradient of the wall pressure, and (3) the wall shear stress along (a) the inner curve and (b) the outer curve for P-V, V-P, V-NS0 and P-P models. Here the inner curve and the outer curve are the intersections of the axial cross section of the artery (x = 0) with lumen boundary on the inner border of the bend and on the outer border of the bend, respectively. The axial cross-section (x = 0) serves approximately as the middle-cut plane of the asymmetric artery. Table 1 lists the global maximum values of the mean PD, the mean WPG, and the mean WSS and the global minimum values of the mean WSS for five models. From the plots in Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, we can observe the effects of the boundary conditions (BCs) on the magnitude of the velocity, the WSS, the pressure, the PD, and the WPG. We can also see how the boundary conditions affect the temporal distribution patterns of the blood flows. |
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Background: In literature, the effect of the inflow boundary condition was investigated by examining the impact of the waveform and the shape of the spatial profile of the inlet velocity on the cardiac hemodynamics. However, not much work has been reported on comparing the effect of the different combinations of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions on the quantification of the pressure field and flow distribution patterns in stenotic right coronary arteries.
Method: Non-Newtonian models were used to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific stenotic right coronary artery and investigate the influence of different boundary conditions on the phasic variation and the spatial distribution patterns of blood flow. The 3D geometry of a diseased artery segment was reconstructed from a series of IVUS slices. Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared.
Results: The temporal distribution patterns and the magnitudes of the velocity, the wall shear stress (WSS), the pressure, the pressure drop (PD), and the spatial gradient of wall pressure (WPG) were different when boundary conditions were imposed using different pressure/velocity combinations at inlet/outlet. The maximum velocity magnitude in a cardiac cycle at the center of the inlet from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% lower than that from models using fully developed inlet velocity data. Due to the fact that models with imposed pressure conditions led to blunt velocity profile, the maximum wall shear stress at inlet in a cardiac cycle from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% higher than that from models with imposed inlet velocity boundary conditions. When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure. On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the inlet and the outlet did not have significant effect on the spatial distribution patterns of the PD, the WPG and the WSS on the lumen surface, regarding the locations of the maximum and the minimum of each quantity.
Conclusions: The observations from this study indicated that the ways how pressure and velocity boundary conditions are imposed in computational models have considerable impact on flow velocity and shear stress predictions. Accuracy of in vivo measurements of blood pressure and velocity is of great importance for reliable model predictions.