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Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

Voon V, Morris LS, Irvine MA, Ruck C, Worbe Y, Derbyshire K, Rankov V, Schreiber LR, Odlaug BL, Harrison NA, Wood J, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET, Grant JE - Neuropsychopharmacology (2014)

Bottom Line: Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers.Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers.The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK [2] Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK [3] Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Probability weighting in pathological disorders in reward and loss conditions. The graphs compare probability weighting, w(p), in obese subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) and without BED (obese controls), abstinent alcohol-dependent (EtOH) and abstinent methamphetamine-dependent (Meth) vs their own age- and gender-matched controls for reward (top) and loss (bottom) conditions. The dotted line represents certainty equivalence=expected value. Error bars represent SEM. *Post hoc analysis results following interaction effect of Group × Valence × Probability. Details of significant differences are described in the text and Supplementary Table S3. P=probability.
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fig2: Probability weighting in pathological disorders in reward and loss conditions. The graphs compare probability weighting, w(p), in obese subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) and without BED (obese controls), abstinent alcohol-dependent (EtOH) and abstinent methamphetamine-dependent (Meth) vs their own age- and gender-matched controls for reward (top) and loss (bottom) conditions. The dotted line represents certainty equivalence=expected value. Error bars represent SEM. *Post hoc analysis results following interaction effect of Group × Valence × Probability. Details of significant differences are described in the text and Supplementary Table S3. P=probability.

Mentions: For each subject group, the following analyses are divided into: (i) decision weight w(p) across probabilities (Supplementary Table S3; Figure 2); (ii) w(p) separately for reward and loss across values (Supplementary Table S4; Figure 3 and Figure 4); (iii) nonlinearity, α, and convexity, βSupplementary Table S5; Figure 5).


Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

Voon V, Morris LS, Irvine MA, Ruck C, Worbe Y, Derbyshire K, Rankov V, Schreiber LR, Odlaug BL, Harrison NA, Wood J, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET, Grant JE - Neuropsychopharmacology (2014)

Probability weighting in pathological disorders in reward and loss conditions. The graphs compare probability weighting, w(p), in obese subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) and without BED (obese controls), abstinent alcohol-dependent (EtOH) and abstinent methamphetamine-dependent (Meth) vs their own age- and gender-matched controls for reward (top) and loss (bottom) conditions. The dotted line represents certainty equivalence=expected value. Error bars represent SEM. *Post hoc analysis results following interaction effect of Group × Valence × Probability. Details of significant differences are described in the text and Supplementary Table S3. P=probability.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4305336&req=5

fig2: Probability weighting in pathological disorders in reward and loss conditions. The graphs compare probability weighting, w(p), in obese subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) and without BED (obese controls), abstinent alcohol-dependent (EtOH) and abstinent methamphetamine-dependent (Meth) vs their own age- and gender-matched controls for reward (top) and loss (bottom) conditions. The dotted line represents certainty equivalence=expected value. Error bars represent SEM. *Post hoc analysis results following interaction effect of Group × Valence × Probability. Details of significant differences are described in the text and Supplementary Table S3. P=probability.
Mentions: For each subject group, the following analyses are divided into: (i) decision weight w(p) across probabilities (Supplementary Table S3; Figure 2); (ii) w(p) separately for reward and loss across values (Supplementary Table S4; Figure 3 and Figure 4); (iii) nonlinearity, α, and convexity, βSupplementary Table S5; Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers.Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers.The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK [2] Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK [3] Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus