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Mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator for endoscopic surgery.

Kawai T, Shin M, Nishizawa Y, Horise Y, Nishikawa A, Nakamura T - Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg (2014)

Bottom Line: Although many locally operated surgical robots and devices have been developed, none can safely grasp organs and provide traction.A mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator (LODEM) was developed and tested.The manipulator could successfully handle the target organs with the required level of dexterity during an in vivo laparoscopic surgical procedure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi Ward, Osaka , 535-8585, Japan, kawai@bme.oit.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Local surgery is safer than remote surgery because emergencies can be more easily addressed. Although many locally operated surgical robots and devices have been developed, none can safely grasp organs and provide traction. A new manipulator with a detachable commercial forceps was developed that can act as a third arm for a surgeon situated in a sterile area near the patient. This mechanism can be disassembled into compact parts that enable mobile use.

Methods: A mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator (LODEM) was developed and tested. This device uses crank-slider and cable-rod mechanisms to achieve 5 degrees of freedom and an acting force of more than 5 N. The total mass is less than 15 kg. The positional accuracy and speed of the prototype device were evaluated while performing simulated in vivo surgery.

Results: The accuracy of the mobile LODEM was 0.4 mm, sufficient for handling organs. The manipulator could be assembled and disassembled in 8 min, making it highly mobile. The manipulator could successfully handle the target organs with the required level of dexterity during an in vivo laparoscopic surgical procedure.

Conclusions: A mobile LODEM was designed that allows minimally invasive robotically assisted endoscopic surgery by a surgeon working near the patient. This device is highly promising for robotic surgery applications.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Prototype of mobile LODEM. A commercial forceps attached to the manipulator is controlled using a button controller placed on a handheld forceps. The manipulator can be disassembled into the main arm, the actuators, the cable rods and the tripod. The controller had different shaped switches and a symmetric layout
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Fig3: Prototype of mobile LODEM. A commercial forceps attached to the manipulator is controlled using a button controller placed on a handheld forceps. The manipulator can be disassembled into the main arm, the actuators, the cable rods and the tripod. The controller had different shaped switches and a symmetric layout

Mentions: Figure 3 shows photographs of the prototype LODEM and the handheld control forceps. The operating ranges were for the pitch and yaw axes, 0–250 mm for the insertion/extraction axis, for the roll axis and 0–90 for open/close axis. The driving resolution at the tip of a forceps with a length of 250 mm was 0.06 mm for the pitch axis, 0.17 mm for the yaw axis, and 0.01 mm for the insertion/extraction axis, which exceeded the required accuracy of 0.5 mm. The main arm was 470 mm in height, 900 mm in depth, and 130 mm in width, and its mass was 4.6 kg. The cable rod used for the insertion/extraction axis had an inner cable with a diameter of 1.6 mm, and an outer tube with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm and an outer diameter of 5.0 mm. The cable rods used for the roll axis and the open/close axis had an inner cable with a diameter of 1.2 mm, and an outer tube with an inner diameter of 2.0 mm and an outer diameter of 4.0 mm. The length of all the outer tubes was 1,400 mm. Each cable had a mass of 0.1 kg, and the backlash was experimentally determined to be 1.5 mm. The combined mass of the three actuators connected to the cable rods was 4.0 kg, and the tripod had a mass of 4.8 kg. Thus, the total mass was less than 15 kg. All of the actuators were stepper motors, and had sufficient torque to supply a force of over 5 N to the tip of the forceps, based on the friction resistance of the transmission mechanisms.Fig. 3


Mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator for endoscopic surgery.

Kawai T, Shin M, Nishizawa Y, Horise Y, Nishikawa A, Nakamura T - Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg (2014)

Prototype of mobile LODEM. A commercial forceps attached to the manipulator is controlled using a button controller placed on a handheld forceps. The manipulator can be disassembled into the main arm, the actuators, the cable rods and the tripod. The controller had different shaped switches and a symmetric layout
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4305102&req=5

Fig3: Prototype of mobile LODEM. A commercial forceps attached to the manipulator is controlled using a button controller placed on a handheld forceps. The manipulator can be disassembled into the main arm, the actuators, the cable rods and the tripod. The controller had different shaped switches and a symmetric layout
Mentions: Figure 3 shows photographs of the prototype LODEM and the handheld control forceps. The operating ranges were for the pitch and yaw axes, 0–250 mm for the insertion/extraction axis, for the roll axis and 0–90 for open/close axis. The driving resolution at the tip of a forceps with a length of 250 mm was 0.06 mm for the pitch axis, 0.17 mm for the yaw axis, and 0.01 mm for the insertion/extraction axis, which exceeded the required accuracy of 0.5 mm. The main arm was 470 mm in height, 900 mm in depth, and 130 mm in width, and its mass was 4.6 kg. The cable rod used for the insertion/extraction axis had an inner cable with a diameter of 1.6 mm, and an outer tube with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm and an outer diameter of 5.0 mm. The cable rods used for the roll axis and the open/close axis had an inner cable with a diameter of 1.2 mm, and an outer tube with an inner diameter of 2.0 mm and an outer diameter of 4.0 mm. The length of all the outer tubes was 1,400 mm. Each cable had a mass of 0.1 kg, and the backlash was experimentally determined to be 1.5 mm. The combined mass of the three actuators connected to the cable rods was 4.0 kg, and the tripod had a mass of 4.8 kg. Thus, the total mass was less than 15 kg. All of the actuators were stepper motors, and had sufficient torque to supply a force of over 5 N to the tip of the forceps, based on the friction resistance of the transmission mechanisms.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Although many locally operated surgical robots and devices have been developed, none can safely grasp organs and provide traction.A mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator (LODEM) was developed and tested.The manipulator could successfully handle the target organs with the required level of dexterity during an in vivo laparoscopic surgical procedure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi Ward, Osaka , 535-8585, Japan, kawai@bme.oit.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Local surgery is safer than remote surgery because emergencies can be more easily addressed. Although many locally operated surgical robots and devices have been developed, none can safely grasp organs and provide traction. A new manipulator with a detachable commercial forceps was developed that can act as a third arm for a surgeon situated in a sterile area near the patient. This mechanism can be disassembled into compact parts that enable mobile use.

Methods: A mobile locally operated detachable end-effector manipulator (LODEM) was developed and tested. This device uses crank-slider and cable-rod mechanisms to achieve 5 degrees of freedom and an acting force of more than 5 N. The total mass is less than 15 kg. The positional accuracy and speed of the prototype device were evaluated while performing simulated in vivo surgery.

Results: The accuracy of the mobile LODEM was 0.4 mm, sufficient for handling organs. The manipulator could be assembled and disassembled in 8 min, making it highly mobile. The manipulator could successfully handle the target organs with the required level of dexterity during an in vivo laparoscopic surgical procedure.

Conclusions: A mobile LODEM was designed that allows minimally invasive robotically assisted endoscopic surgery by a surgeon working near the patient. This device is highly promising for robotic surgery applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus