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Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial.

Keast RS, Swinburn BA, Sayompark D, Whitelock S, Riddell LJ - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: A trained flavour panel (n 30) found no difference in flavour between the C-SSB and NC-SSB (P>0·05).The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB.Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University,221 Burwood Highway,Burwood,VIC3125,Australia.

ABSTRACT

Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with overweight and obesity. Caffeine is a common additive to SSB, and through dependence effects, it has the potential to promote the consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence that caffeine has on the consumption of SSB. Participants (n 99) were blindly assigned to either a caffeinated SSB (C-SSB) or a non-caffeinated SSB (NC-SSB) group. Following randomisation, all participants completed a 9 d flavour-conditioning paradigm. They then completed a 28 d ad libitum intake intervention where they consumed as much or as little of C-SSB or NC-SSB as desired. The amount consumed (ml) was recorded daily, 4 d diet diaries were collected and liking of SSB was assessed at the start and end of the intervention. Participants (n 50) consuming the C-SSB had a daily SSB intake of 419 (sd 298) ml (785 (sd 559) kJ/d) over the 28 d intervention, significantly more than participants (n 49) consuming the NC-SSB (273 (sd 278) ml/d, 512 (sd 521) kJ/d) (P< 0·001). A trained flavour panel (n 30) found no difference in flavour between the C-SSB and NC-SSB (P>0·05). However, participants who consumed the C-SSB liked the SSB more than those who consumed the NC-SSB (6·3 v. 6·0 on a nine-point hedonic scale, P= 0·022). The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB. Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of the study outline.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Flow chart of the study outline.

Mentions: A total of 123 participants (49 % female, age 23 (sd 3) years) enrolled in the present study (Fig. 1). During week 1, twenty participants withdrew due to time pressures or a lack of response to research personnel, and during the intervention, a further four participants withdrew due to failure to respond to contact from research personnel. Finally, ninety-nine participants completed the study: n 49 in the NC-SSB group (53 % female, age 23 (sd 4) years and BMI 23·1 (sd 3·1) kg/m2) and n 50 in the C-SSB group (48 % female, age 22·5 (sd 2·8) years and BMI 22·9 (sd 3·4) kg/m2). There were no significant differences in height, weight, age or BMI between the groups (P>0·05; Table 1). The mean caffeine intake for participants was 250 (sd 120) mg/d, and there was no difference in caffeine intake between the groups.Fig. 1


Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial.

Keast RS, Swinburn BA, Sayompark D, Whitelock S, Riddell LJ - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Flow chart of the study outline.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4302390&req=5

fig1: Flow chart of the study outline.
Mentions: A total of 123 participants (49 % female, age 23 (sd 3) years) enrolled in the present study (Fig. 1). During week 1, twenty participants withdrew due to time pressures or a lack of response to research personnel, and during the intervention, a further four participants withdrew due to failure to respond to contact from research personnel. Finally, ninety-nine participants completed the study: n 49 in the NC-SSB group (53 % female, age 23 (sd 4) years and BMI 23·1 (sd 3·1) kg/m2) and n 50 in the C-SSB group (48 % female, age 22·5 (sd 2·8) years and BMI 22·9 (sd 3·4) kg/m2). There were no significant differences in height, weight, age or BMI between the groups (P>0·05; Table 1). The mean caffeine intake for participants was 250 (sd 120) mg/d, and there was no difference in caffeine intake between the groups.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: A trained flavour panel (n 30) found no difference in flavour between the C-SSB and NC-SSB (P>0·05).The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB.Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University,221 Burwood Highway,Burwood,VIC3125,Australia.

ABSTRACT

Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with overweight and obesity. Caffeine is a common additive to SSB, and through dependence effects, it has the potential to promote the consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence that caffeine has on the consumption of SSB. Participants (n 99) were blindly assigned to either a caffeinated SSB (C-SSB) or a non-caffeinated SSB (NC-SSB) group. Following randomisation, all participants completed a 9 d flavour-conditioning paradigm. They then completed a 28 d ad libitum intake intervention where they consumed as much or as little of C-SSB or NC-SSB as desired. The amount consumed (ml) was recorded daily, 4 d diet diaries were collected and liking of SSB was assessed at the start and end of the intervention. Participants (n 50) consuming the C-SSB had a daily SSB intake of 419 (sd 298) ml (785 (sd 559) kJ/d) over the 28 d intervention, significantly more than participants (n 49) consuming the NC-SSB (273 (sd 278) ml/d, 512 (sd 521) kJ/d) (P< 0·001). A trained flavour panel (n 30) found no difference in flavour between the C-SSB and NC-SSB (P>0·05). However, participants who consumed the C-SSB liked the SSB more than those who consumed the NC-SSB (6·3 v. 6·0 on a nine-point hedonic scale, P= 0·022). The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB. Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus