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Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk.

Alba JM, Schimmel BC, Glas JJ, Ataide LM, Pappas ML, Villarroel CA, Schuurink RC, Sabelis MW, Kant MR - New Phytol. (2014)

Bottom Line: We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors.Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA-SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%.Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Biology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94240, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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The amounts of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA), along with transcript abundances of Proteinase Inhibitor IIc (PI-IIc) and Pathogenesis-related 1a (PR-1a) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaflets after 7 d of infestation with inducer Tetranychus urticae Santpoort-2, suppressor T. evansi Viçosa-1, and suppressor T. urticae DeLier-1, or a combination of inducer and either of the suppressors. The figure shows the amounts of JA-Ile and PI-IIc transcript (a, c) and the amounts of free SA and PR-1a transcript (b, d). Leaflets were infested with T. urticae Santpoort-2 (TuSP-2), T. evansi Viçosa-1 (TeV-1), or T. urticae DeLier-1 (TuDL-1), or simultaneously with TuSP-2 and either TeV-1 or TuDL-1 (both). Uninfested leaflets were used as controls. The numbers below the x-axis indicate the number of adult female mites used to infest the leaflets. The bars show the means (+ SEM), which are given as numbers within or above the bars. Transcript abundances were normalized to actin and scaled to the lowest mean per panel. Bars annotated with different letters (lowercase for JA-Ile and SA; uppercase for PI-IIc and PR-1a) were significantly different according to Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05) after ANOVA.
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fig04: The amounts of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA), along with transcript abundances of Proteinase Inhibitor IIc (PI-IIc) and Pathogenesis-related 1a (PR-1a) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaflets after 7 d of infestation with inducer Tetranychus urticae Santpoort-2, suppressor T. evansi Viçosa-1, and suppressor T. urticae DeLier-1, or a combination of inducer and either of the suppressors. The figure shows the amounts of JA-Ile and PI-IIc transcript (a, c) and the amounts of free SA and PR-1a transcript (b, d). Leaflets were infested with T. urticae Santpoort-2 (TuSP-2), T. evansi Viçosa-1 (TeV-1), or T. urticae DeLier-1 (TuDL-1), or simultaneously with TuSP-2 and either TeV-1 or TuDL-1 (both). Uninfested leaflets were used as controls. The numbers below the x-axis indicate the number of adult female mites used to infest the leaflets. The bars show the means (+ SEM), which are given as numbers within or above the bars. Transcript abundances were normalized to actin and scaled to the lowest mean per panel. Bars annotated with different letters (lowercase for JA-Ile and SA; uppercase for PI-IIc and PR-1a) were significantly different according to Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05) after ANOVA.

Mentions: In line with the previous results, infestation with 15 T. urticae Santpoort-2 mites resulted in strongly induced JA and SA defenses (Fig.4a,b). The plant's defense responses to Santpoort-2 mites increased in a density-dependent manner (Fig. S7). The 15 T. evansi Viçosa-1 mites caused minor increases in JA-Ile and SA concentrations, but higher densities of T. evansi Viçosa-1 did not further elevate hormone concentrations or PI-IIc expression, while even lowering that of PR-1a (Fig. S7).


Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk.

Alba JM, Schimmel BC, Glas JJ, Ataide LM, Pappas ML, Villarroel CA, Schuurink RC, Sabelis MW, Kant MR - New Phytol. (2014)

The amounts of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA), along with transcript abundances of Proteinase Inhibitor IIc (PI-IIc) and Pathogenesis-related 1a (PR-1a) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaflets after 7 d of infestation with inducer Tetranychus urticae Santpoort-2, suppressor T. evansi Viçosa-1, and suppressor T. urticae DeLier-1, or a combination of inducer and either of the suppressors. The figure shows the amounts of JA-Ile and PI-IIc transcript (a, c) and the amounts of free SA and PR-1a transcript (b, d). Leaflets were infested with T. urticae Santpoort-2 (TuSP-2), T. evansi Viçosa-1 (TeV-1), or T. urticae DeLier-1 (TuDL-1), or simultaneously with TuSP-2 and either TeV-1 or TuDL-1 (both). Uninfested leaflets were used as controls. The numbers below the x-axis indicate the number of adult female mites used to infest the leaflets. The bars show the means (+ SEM), which are given as numbers within or above the bars. Transcript abundances were normalized to actin and scaled to the lowest mean per panel. Bars annotated with different letters (lowercase for JA-Ile and SA; uppercase for PI-IIc and PR-1a) were significantly different according to Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05) after ANOVA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4301184&req=5

fig04: The amounts of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA), along with transcript abundances of Proteinase Inhibitor IIc (PI-IIc) and Pathogenesis-related 1a (PR-1a) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaflets after 7 d of infestation with inducer Tetranychus urticae Santpoort-2, suppressor T. evansi Viçosa-1, and suppressor T. urticae DeLier-1, or a combination of inducer and either of the suppressors. The figure shows the amounts of JA-Ile and PI-IIc transcript (a, c) and the amounts of free SA and PR-1a transcript (b, d). Leaflets were infested with T. urticae Santpoort-2 (TuSP-2), T. evansi Viçosa-1 (TeV-1), or T. urticae DeLier-1 (TuDL-1), or simultaneously with TuSP-2 and either TeV-1 or TuDL-1 (both). Uninfested leaflets were used as controls. The numbers below the x-axis indicate the number of adult female mites used to infest the leaflets. The bars show the means (+ SEM), which are given as numbers within or above the bars. Transcript abundances were normalized to actin and scaled to the lowest mean per panel. Bars annotated with different letters (lowercase for JA-Ile and SA; uppercase for PI-IIc and PR-1a) were significantly different according to Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05) after ANOVA.
Mentions: In line with the previous results, infestation with 15 T. urticae Santpoort-2 mites resulted in strongly induced JA and SA defenses (Fig.4a,b). The plant's defense responses to Santpoort-2 mites increased in a density-dependent manner (Fig. S7). The 15 T. evansi Viçosa-1 mites caused minor increases in JA-Ile and SA concentrations, but higher densities of T. evansi Viçosa-1 did not further elevate hormone concentrations or PI-IIc expression, while even lowering that of PR-1a (Fig. S7).

Bottom Line: We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors.Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA-SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%.Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Biology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94240, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus