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REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

Kareiva P, Groves C, Marvier M - J Appl Ecol (2014)

Bottom Line: The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study.TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation.Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions and strategies, and in turn the evolving practice of conservation has altered the type of science sought by TNC in order to maximize its conservation effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy 4722 Latona Avenue NE, Seattle, WA, 91805, USA.

ABSTRACT

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted.Synthesis and applications. Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions and strategies, and in turn the evolving practice of conservation has altered the type of science sought by TNC in order to maximize its conservation effectiveness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A portfolio of conservation areas resulting from an ecoregional assessment in the Central Shortgrass Prairie Ecoregion of the United States (Neely et al. 2006). An early generation version of Marxan, a decision support system known as SPOT or Spatial Portfolio Optimization Tool, was used in conjunction with GIS, to select the conservation areas in this portfolio based on the occurrence of various conservation targets (elements of biodiversity) in the ecoregion and the quantitative goals set for these targets.
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fig02: A portfolio of conservation areas resulting from an ecoregional assessment in the Central Shortgrass Prairie Ecoregion of the United States (Neely et al. 2006). An early generation version of Marxan, a decision support system known as SPOT or Spatial Portfolio Optimization Tool, was used in conjunction with GIS, to select the conservation areas in this portfolio based on the occurrence of various conservation targets (elements of biodiversity) in the ecoregion and the quantitative goals set for these targets.

Mentions: Conservation by Design follows an adaptive management framework of (i) setting priorities, (ii) developing strategies, (iii) taking action and (iv) measuring results. Setting priorities has largely been accomplished through ecoregional plans and more recently through Global Habitat Assessments (Hoekstra et al. 2005). Ecoregional plans result from systematic conservation planning (Margules & Pressey 2000), and their most important product is a map of putative conservation areas referred to as a ‘portfolio of conservation sites’ (Fig.2). An important by-product of ecoregional assessments is the widely used decision support system in conservation planning called Marxan (Ball, Possingham & Watts 2009), which was in part developed to meet the needs of TNC planning teams. While ecoregional assessments might seem an unremarkable innovation, these plans transformed TNC 's investments from a largely opportunistic to a highly strategic enterprise. A recent analysis of TNC 's land purchases revealed that 86% of acquired properties fall within priority areas identified by science-based ecoregional plans (Fisher & Dills 2012).


REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

Kareiva P, Groves C, Marvier M - J Appl Ecol (2014)

A portfolio of conservation areas resulting from an ecoregional assessment in the Central Shortgrass Prairie Ecoregion of the United States (Neely et al. 2006). An early generation version of Marxan, a decision support system known as SPOT or Spatial Portfolio Optimization Tool, was used in conjunction with GIS, to select the conservation areas in this portfolio based on the occurrence of various conservation targets (elements of biodiversity) in the ecoregion and the quantitative goals set for these targets.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4301179&req=5

fig02: A portfolio of conservation areas resulting from an ecoregional assessment in the Central Shortgrass Prairie Ecoregion of the United States (Neely et al. 2006). An early generation version of Marxan, a decision support system known as SPOT or Spatial Portfolio Optimization Tool, was used in conjunction with GIS, to select the conservation areas in this portfolio based on the occurrence of various conservation targets (elements of biodiversity) in the ecoregion and the quantitative goals set for these targets.
Mentions: Conservation by Design follows an adaptive management framework of (i) setting priorities, (ii) developing strategies, (iii) taking action and (iv) measuring results. Setting priorities has largely been accomplished through ecoregional plans and more recently through Global Habitat Assessments (Hoekstra et al. 2005). Ecoregional plans result from systematic conservation planning (Margules & Pressey 2000), and their most important product is a map of putative conservation areas referred to as a ‘portfolio of conservation sites’ (Fig.2). An important by-product of ecoregional assessments is the widely used decision support system in conservation planning called Marxan (Ball, Possingham & Watts 2009), which was in part developed to meet the needs of TNC planning teams. While ecoregional assessments might seem an unremarkable innovation, these plans transformed TNC 's investments from a largely opportunistic to a highly strategic enterprise. A recent analysis of TNC 's land purchases revealed that 86% of acquired properties fall within priority areas identified by science-based ecoregional plans (Fisher & Dills 2012).

Bottom Line: The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study.TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation.Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions and strategies, and in turn the evolving practice of conservation has altered the type of science sought by TNC in order to maximize its conservation effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy 4722 Latona Avenue NE, Seattle, WA, 91805, USA.

ABSTRACT

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted.Synthesis and applications. Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions and strategies, and in turn the evolving practice of conservation has altered the type of science sought by TNC in order to maximize its conservation effectiveness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus