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Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

Mohd Abd Razak MR, Afzan A, Ali R, Amir Jalaluddin NF, Wasiman MI, Shiekh Zahari SH, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water.The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique.The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. eezoo79@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties.

Methods: Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Results: Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 < 10 μg/ml) with negligible toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10).

Conclusion: The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Procedure of plant extraction. Different part of plants was extracted sequentially by using organic solvents (DCM and MeOH) with increasing polarity.
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Fig1: Procedure of plant extraction. Different part of plants was extracted sequentially by using organic solvents (DCM and MeOH) with increasing polarity.

Mentions: The fresh plant materials (rhizome, leaf, root and seed) were cut into small pieces, dried and pulverized into powder before extraction with solvents in increasing polarity (Figure 1). The powdered materials were first defatted with hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH) and sterile deionised water (H2O) (80°C). Briefly, the resulting solutions from the first extraction using DCM were filtered through filter paper (Whatman No.1, England) to collect the supernatant from the residue. Organic supernatant were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure with a rotary evaporator (Buchi Rotavapor R-200, Switzerland) at a temperature 40°C. The residue was further extracted by using MeOH similar to the procedure that carried out for the DCM. The resulting residue was air dried and used for further extraction with sterile H2O at 80°C. The aqueous supernatant were freeze-dried to obtain crude extracts (Figure 1). All crude extracts (DCM, MeOH and H2O) were stored at 4°C until used.Figure 1


Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

Mohd Abd Razak MR, Afzan A, Ali R, Amir Jalaluddin NF, Wasiman MI, Shiekh Zahari SH, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Procedure of plant extraction. Different part of plants was extracted sequentially by using organic solvents (DCM and MeOH) with increasing polarity.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300612&req=5

Fig1: Procedure of plant extraction. Different part of plants was extracted sequentially by using organic solvents (DCM and MeOH) with increasing polarity.
Mentions: The fresh plant materials (rhizome, leaf, root and seed) were cut into small pieces, dried and pulverized into powder before extraction with solvents in increasing polarity (Figure 1). The powdered materials were first defatted with hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH) and sterile deionised water (H2O) (80°C). Briefly, the resulting solutions from the first extraction using DCM were filtered through filter paper (Whatman No.1, England) to collect the supernatant from the residue. Organic supernatant were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure with a rotary evaporator (Buchi Rotavapor R-200, Switzerland) at a temperature 40°C. The residue was further extracted by using MeOH similar to the procedure that carried out for the DCM. The resulting residue was air dried and used for further extraction with sterile H2O at 80°C. The aqueous supernatant were freeze-dried to obtain crude extracts (Figure 1). All crude extracts (DCM, MeOH and H2O) were stored at 4°C until used.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water.The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique.The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. eezoo79@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties.

Methods: Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Results: Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 < 10 μg/ml) with negligible toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10).

Conclusion: The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus